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Mastering SaltStack电子书

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52人正在读 | 0人评论 9.8

作       者:Joseph Hall

出  版  社:Packt Publishing

出版时间:2015-08-19

字       数:449.3万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 电脑/网络

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This book is ideal for professionals who have been managing groups of servers, and want to learn how to expand their toolset. This book will also explain some of the more advanced features of Salt, and explore how to use them to bring additional power to the fundamentals that the professionals have already been using.
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Mastering SaltStack

Table of Contents

Mastering SaltStack

Credits

Foreword

About the Author

About the Reviewers

www.PacktPub.com

Support files, eBooks, discount offers, and more

Why subscribe?

Free access for Packt account holders

Preface

What this book covers

What you need for this book

Who this book is for

Conventions

Reader feedback

Customer support

Errata

Piracy

Questions

1. Reviewing a Few Essentials

Executing commands remotely

Master and Minions

Targeting Minions

Glob

Perl Compatible Regular Expression (PCRE)

List

Subnet

Grain

Grain PCRE

Pillar

Compound

Nodegroup

Using module functions

test.ping

test.echo

test.sleep

test.version

pkg.install

pkg.remove

file.replace

Other file functions

Various user and group functions

sys.doc

SLS file trees

SLS files

Tying things together with top files

Organizing the SLS directories

Using States for configuration management

Using include blocks

Ordering with requisites

require

watch

onchanges

onfail

use

prereq

Inverting requisites

Extending SLS files

The basics of Grains, Pillars, and templates

Using Grains for Minion-specific data

Centralizing variables with Pillars

Managing files dynamically with templates

A quick Jinja primer

Summary

2. Diving into Salt Internals

Understanding the Salt configuration

Following the configuration tree

Looking inside /etc/salt/

Managing Salt keys

Exploring the SLS directories

Examining the Salt cache

The Master job cache

The Master-side Minion cache

The external file server cache

The Minion-side proc/ directory

External modules

The Renderer

Rendering SLS files

Render pipes

Serving templated files

Understanding the Loader

Dynamic modules

Execution modules

Cloud modules

Plunging into the State compiler

Imperative versus declarative

Requisites

High and Low States

High States

Low States

Enforcing statefulness

name

result

changes

comment

Summary

3. Exploring Salt SSH

Grappling with SSH

Remote shells

Using rosters

The flat roster

host

port

user

passwd

sudo

priv

timeout

thin_dir

Other built-in rosters

scan

cache

cloud

ansible

Building dynamic rosters

Using Salt SSH

Using a Saltfile

Salt versus Salt SSH

Architecture

Performance

Understanding the salt-thin agent

Building the thin package

Including extra modules

Deploying the thin package

Executing the thin package

The Salt SSH shim

Preparing for Salt States

Running Salt

Salt's running data

Using the raw SSH mode

Caching SSH connections

Summary

4. Managing Tasks Asynchronously

Looking at the event system

Reviewing the basics

The structure of event data

Watching event data

Installing the event listener

Using the event listener

Firing custom data

Namespacing events

Namespacing guidelines

Some common events

salt/auth

salt/key

salt/minion/<minion_id>/start

salt/job/<job_id>/new

salt/job/<job_id>/ret/<minion_id>

salt/presence/present

salt/presence/change

Common cloud events

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/creating

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/requesting

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/querying

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/waiting_for_ssh

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/deploying

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/created

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/destroying

salt/cloud/<vm_name>/destroyed

Salt API events

salt/netapi/<url_path>

Building Reactors

Configuring Reactors

Writing Reactors

Calling execution modules

Calling runner modules

Calling wheel modules

Writing more complex Reactors

Sending out alerts

Using webhooks

Reactors calling Reactors

Using the queue system

Learning how queues work

Adding to the queue

Listing queues

Listing items in a queue

Processing queue items

Deleting items from a queue

Using queues with the Reactor

Spreading out State runs

Dividing tasks among Minions

Summary

5. Taking Salt Cloud to the Next Level

Examining the Salt Cloud configuration

Global configurations

The provider and profile configuration

Providers

Profiles

Extending configuration blocks

Building custom deploy scripts

Understanding the Salt Bootstrap script

Installing from prebuilt packages

Installing from Git

Looking back at legacy deploy scripts

Writing your own deploy scripts

Passing arguments to scripts

Using file maps

Taking a look at cloud maps

Working with autoscale Reactors

The cloud cache

Using cloud cache events

Setting up a schedule

Catching cloud cache events

Summary

6. Using Salt with REST

Looking at Salt's HTTP library

Why a Salt-specific library?

Using the http.query function

GET versus POST

Decoding return data

Using the http.query state

Using http.query with Reactors

Understanding Salt API

What is Salt API?

Setting up Salt API

CherryPy

Tornado

WSGI

Creating SSL certificates

Configuring authentication

The external authentication module

Taking your first steps with Salt API

Issuing one-off commands

Working with webhooks

Security considerations

More complex authentication

Summary

7. Understanding the RAET Protocol

Comparing RAET and ZeroMQ

Starting with HTTP

SSH, the old favorite

Using ZeroMQ

ZeroMQ and security

The need for RAET

Flow-based programming

The pieces of the puzzle

Black boxes

Shared storage

Concurrent scheduling

Driving with RAET

Configuring RAET

The RAET architecture

The basics

The RAET scheduler

Estates and yards

Summary

8. Strategies for Scaling

All about syndication

Different folks, different strokes

No need for micro-managing

Configuring syndication

High availability with multiple Masters

Built-in high availability configuration

Old-school high availability

The round robin DNS

IP-based load balancing

Synchronizing files

Base configuration files

Synchronizing the nonexternal files

Using rsync

Using the event Reactor

Incorporating external data sources

The external job cache

Using Returners on the Minions

Using the Master job cache

External filesystems

GitFS

base

root

mountpoint

user and password

insecure_auth

pubkey, privkey, and passphrase

Other source control backends

SVNFS

root and mountpoint

trunk

branches

tags

HGFS

S3FS

One environment per bucket

Multiple environments per bucket

AzureFS

External Pillars

cmd_yaml/cmd_json

git

redis

mysql

Using the Master API

The Salt keys

Configuration

The file and Pillar roots

Using the Wheel Reactor

Testing load in the infrastructure

Using the Minion Swarm

Swarm internals

Summary

9. Monitoring with Salt

Monitoring basics

Establishing a baseline

Reading the system vitals in Salt

status.loadavg

status.cpustats

status.meminfo

status.vmstats

disk.usage, status.diskusage

status.w

status.all_status, status.custom

Monitoring with Returners

Deciding on a Returner

Using monitoring states

Defining a monitoring state

Monitoring with web calls

Working with beacons

Monitoring file changes

Beacon intervals

Setting up alerts

Alerting in State files

Alerting from beacons

Watching file changes

Monitoring bad logins

Summary

10. Exploring Best Practices

Future-proofing your infrastructure

Setting up your directories

Standard directory locations

<module>.sls versus init.sls

Shallow versus deep

Subdividing further

The SLS efficiency

Includes and extends

Using includes

Using extends

Using templates to simplify SLS files

Working with loops

Decisions, decisions

Using the built-in States

Naming conventions

Generic names

Explicit names

Templates and variables

Nested variables

Referring to variables in templates

Summary

11. Troubleshooting Problems

What the…?

Addressing the problem source

Where is the trouble?

The Master to Minion communication

The network and CPU congestion

Checking the Minion load

Querying the Salt job data

Using debug and trace modes

info

warn

error

debug/trace

Running services in debug mode

Using salt-call locally

Working with YAML

YAML basics

dict

list

YAML idiosyncrasies

Spacing

Numbers

Booleans

List items

Troubleshooting YAML

Asking the community for help

The salt-users mailing list

Asking questions

The Salt issue tracker

Researching before posting

Formatting your issues

Requesting features

#salt on IRC

Final community thoughts

Summary

Index

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