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Constructed Climates电子书

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作       者:William G. Wilson

出  版  社:University of Chicago Press

出版时间:2011-02-15

字       数:34.9万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 文学/自传/回忆录

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  • 读书简介
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As our world becomes increasingly urbanized, an understanding of the context, mechanisms, and consequences of city and suburban environments becomes more critical. Without a sense of what open spaces such as parks and gardens contribute, it's difficult to argue for their creation and maintenance: in the face of schools needing resources, roads and sewers needing maintenance, and people suffering at the hands of others, why should cities and counties spend scarce dollars planting trees and preserving parksIn Constructed Climates, ecologist William G. Wilson demonstrates the value of urban green. Focusing specifically on the role of vegetation and trees, Wilson shows the costs and benefits reaped from urban open spaces, from cooler temperatures to better quality ground water-and why it all matters. While Constructed Climates is a work of science, it does not ignore the social component. Wilson looks at low-income areas that have poor vegetation, and shows how enhancing these areas through the planting of community gardens and trees can alleviate social ills. This book will be essential reading for environmentalists and anyone making decisions for the nature and well-being of our cities and citizens.
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Preface

Chapter 1 Cities and Nature

Human population increased sixfold over the last century

Water, warmth, and light make plants grow

High evapotranspiration promotes biodiversity

Humans exceed the natural population density for their body size

The last century brought increased agricultural efficiency

Fossil-fuel-based nitrogen production increased crop yields

Urban land use grew as small farms disappeared

Cities change ecological communities

Agricultural and urban land use reduce streamwater quality

Impervious surfaces in urbanized watersheds hurt organisms

Durham rainfall exceeds regulated basin sizes

Reservoirs reduce sediments while providing water

Chapter 2 Shading and Cooling in City Climates

Low vegetation correlates with high temperature in Durham

Low vegetation correlates with high temperature in Indianapolis

Low temperature correlates with high vegetation

Urban heat islands spawn thunderstorms

Cities change rainfall patterns

Lightning strikes reflect urban weather changes

Cities grow warmer

Closed-in urban areas have higher heat islands

The urban heat island may be weak while Earth warms

Equal heat contained in air, a sprinkling of water, and an asphalt road

Whiter surfaces are cooler

Parking lot trees could provide shade

Big trees could provide lots of shade

Bigger and younger trees transpire more water

Trees near asphalt stop transpiring early in the day

Evapotranspiration is high from watersheds and lawns

New developments can plan for shade

Paving and grass can be combined

Chapter 3 Energy Use and Carbon Budgets

U.S.energy sources have changed

States vary in their gasoline and electricity use

Per capita energy use depends on a state’s population density

Economic productivity correlates with energy use

Photosynthesis links carbon, water, nitrogen, and sunlight

Atmospheric CO2 increased with human emissions

Global warming changes nature

Species have different features in urban and rural environments

Soils contribute to carbon budgets

Vegetation stores and sequesters carbon

Urban pruning can be very intensive

Carbon costs of landscaping machines are high

Durham citizens export their carbon sequestration

Trees and white paint reduce energy consumption

Trees help small houses keep cool and break even for heating

Wood has low energy content

Durham citizens use more energy than local forests can provide

Chapter 4 Emissions and Urban Air

Human sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are high

Fossil-fuel use produces many pollutants

Trees produce VOCs

VOCs produced by trees vary across the contiguous United States

Trees produce more VOCs in bright light and high heat

VOC sources vary in place and time

VOCs, reactive nitrogen, and sunlight lead to ground-level ozone

Large pollution inputs lead to high downwind ozone levels later

Ozone production and levels have a complicated emissions dependence

High ozone levels seenWednesday through Saturday, March through September

Ozone in rural areas increases with temperature and nitrogen

When it’s hot, urban ozone levels exceed regulatory allowances

High ozone levels harm vegetation

Air pollution varies greatly in space and time

Chapter 5 Social Aspects of Urban Nature

What’s the value of Chickpea?

S.A.Forbes (1880) estimates the value of birds

Trees make satisfying neighborhoods

People like neat trees, not messy forests

Park features involving scenic beauty and perceived security

Underbrush was bad as far back as 1285

About 10 out of 10 people prefer malls

Varying tree cover in Chicago public housing

Reduced vegetation correlates with higher crime

Girls’ self-discipline develops better with nature

Nature promotes emotional and physical health

Trees promote bird and plant species richness

Chapter 6 Human Health and Urban Inequities

Heat waves lead to deaths a few days later

Particulate matter is bad for older people

High ozone and SO2 levels predict high asthma hospitalizations

Asthma incidence and pollution aren’t tightly correlated through time

Though cities differ, heat kills people in July and August

Air conditioning reduces heat-related mortality

Many people die in winter (accounting for age, race, and gender).

Lower income, fewer trees, and higher temperatures go together in Durham

Wealth, homeownership, and trees connect in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Wealth, education, and vegetation correlate in Baltimore, Maryland

Parks, trees, and plants come with wealth

Minority populations have worse air, income, and asthma

Healthier neighborhoods are usually wealthier neighborhoods

Income helps education and increases life expectancy

Chapter 7 Summary and Implications

Appendix Graphical Intuitions

Three equivalent data representations

Graphing visual correlations

Importance versus significance

Plotting transformed data

Quantities covary

Sample sizes and measures of variation

References

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