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Pottery Analysis, Second Edition电子书

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作       者:Rice, Prudence M.

出  版  社:University of Chicago Press

出版时间:2015-09-07

字       数:1107.2万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 艺术/建筑/历史

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Just as a single pot starts with a lump of clay, the study of a piece's history must start with an understanding of its raw materials. This principle is the foundation of Pottery Analysis, the acclaimed sourcebook that has become the indispensable guide for archaeologists and anthropologists worldwide. By grounding current research in the larger history of pottery and drawing together diverse approaches to the study of pottery, it offers a rich, comprehensive view of ceramic inquiry.This new edition fully incorporates more than two decades of growth and diversification in the fields of archaeological and ethnographic study of pottery. It begins with a summary of the origins and history of pottery in different parts of the world, then examines the raw materials of pottery and their physical and chemical properties. It addresses ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological perspectives on pottery production; reviews the methods of studying pottery's physical, mechanical, thermal, mineralogical, and chemical properties; and discusses how proper analysis of artifacts can reveal insights into their culture of origin. Intended for use in the classroom, the lab, and out in the field, this essential text offers an unparalleled basis for pottery research.
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Cover

Title Page

Copyright Page

Dedication

Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Boxes

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Note to Instructors

Part 1 Introduction

1 Pottery and Its History

1.1 Pottery and Ceramics: Definitions and Products

1.2 The Earliest Pottery

1.2.1 Pottery Containers: Why Pots?

1.2.1.1 Hunting-Gathering-Foraging-Collecting

1.2.1.2 Hypotheses and Models

1.2.2 Software

1.3 Pottery and Ceramics in the Old World

1.3.1 Eastern Asia

1.3.2 Western Asia/Near East

1.3.3 Africa

1.3.4 Europe and the Mediterranean

1.4 Pottery and Ceramics in the “New” World

1.4.1 South America

1.4.2 Mesoamerica

1.4.3 North America

1.4.4 Pottery and Ceramics in the Colonial World

Part 2 The Raw Materials of Pottery Making: Perspectives from Chemistry, Geology, and Engineering

2 Clays: Origins and Definitions

2.1 Earth Materials

2.1.1 Rock-Forming Minerals

2.1.2 Weathering and Clay Formation

2.2 Definitions of Clays

2.2.1 Granulometry

2.2.2 Depositional Situation

2.2.3 Chemical Composition

2.2.4 Mineralogy: Phyllosilicates

2.2.4.1 Planar Phyllosilicates

2.2.4.2 Non-planar Phyllosilicates

2.2.5 Commercial Uses

2.3 Functional Definitions

3 Plasticity: The Clay/Water System

3.1 Water, Dipoles, and Ions

3.2 Plasticity

3.2.1 Factors Influencing Plasticity

3.2.1.1 Particle Size and Shape

3.2.1.2 Surface Tension

3.2.1.3 Adsorbed Ions and Rigid Water

3.2.1.4 Clay Mineral Component

3.2.1.5 Deposit Location and Organic Matter

3.2.2 Measuring Plasticity

3.3 Ions and Organics

3.3.1 Ions

3.3.2 Flocculation

3.3.3 Organics

4 Non-clay Constituents

4.1 Coarse Inclusions

4.1.1 Three Common Minerals

4.1.2 Triaxial Bodies

4.2 What Is Temper?

4.2.1 Kinds of Temper

4.2.2 Problems in Terminology

4.3 Distinguishing Naturally Present from Added Substances

4.3.1 Inorganics vs. Organics

4.3.2 Size and Shape

5 Drying and Shrinkage

5.1 Kinds of Water

5.2 Green Strength

5.3 Drying Defects and Causes

5.3.1 Particle Size and Shape

5.3.2 Method of Shaping

5.3.3 Preferred Orientation

5.3.4 Ambient Conditions

5.4 Preheating

6 Changes in Clays with Heat

6.1 Variables: Time, Temperature, and Atmosphere

6.2 Changes at Low Temperatures

6.2.1 Loss of Volatiles

6.2.1.1 Water

6.2.1.2 Organics and Impurities

6.2.2 Shrinkage

6.2.3 Changes in Clay Minerals

6.2.4 Changes in Inclusions

6.3 Changes at High Temperatures

6.3.1 Changes in Mineral Constituents

6.3.2 Sintering and Vitrification

7 Glazes

7.1 Components and Kinds of Glazes

7.2 Colorants

7.3 Firing

Part 3 Behavior: Ethnographic Perspectives on Pottery Making

8 Manufacture

8.1 Obtaining and Preparing Resources

8.1.1 Distance

8.1.2 Modification

8.2 Forming: Techniques and Tools

8.2.1 Hand Building and Molding

8.2.1.1 Hand Building

8.2.1.2 Molding

8.2.2 Supports and Rotational Devices

8.2.3 The Potter’s Wheel

8.3 Finishing: Techniques and Tools

8.3.1 Secondary Forming Techniques: Beating and Scraping

8.3.2 Surface Finishing: Smoothing and Texturing

8.3.2.1 Smoothing

8.3.2.2 Texturing

8.4 Drying and Preheating

9 Surface Enhancement

9.1 Penetration or Displacement

9.1.1 Impressing

9.1.2 Cutting

9.2 Additions to the Surface

9.2.1 Appliqués

9.2.2 Color and Colorants

9.2.2.1 Painting

9.2.2.2 Slips

9.3 Glaze

10 Firing

10.1 Separated Fuel and Ware: Kiln Firing

10.1.1 Types of Kilns

10.1.2 Firing

10.2 Intermingled Fuel and Ware: Mixed Firing

10.2.1 Time, Temperature, and Atmosphere

10.2.2 Postfiring Treatments

10.3 Economic Realities: Costs and Losses

10.3.1 Problems of Mixed Firing

10.3.2 Problems of Kiln Firing

10.3.3 Fuels and Costs

10.4 Final Considerations

11 Exchange and Household Provisioning

11.1 Distribution: From Producer to Consumer

11.1.1 Reciprocity, Redistribution, Exchange, Trade

11.1.2 Costs and Prices

11.1.3 Cautions in Interpretation

11.2 Consumers: Ceramic Censuses and Household Assemblages

11.2.1 How Many Pots?

11.2.2 Pottery Use-Life

11.2.3 Recycling and Replacement

Part 4 Methods and Measures: Analyzing Archaeological Pottery

12 Methods and Theories

12.1 Theories and Approaches

12.1.1 Experimental Archaeology and Ethnoarchaeology

12.1.2 Technology and Choices

12.1.3 Behavioral Archaeology and Life Histories

12.2 Formation Processes

12.2.1 Discard and Refuse Disposal

12.2.2 Site Assemblages

12.2.2.1 Population and Permanence

12.2.2.2 Some Cautions

13 Classification

13.1 Attributes

13.2 History of Americanist Pottery Classification

13.3 So, What Are Types?

13.4 Kinds of Classifications

13.4.1 Ethnotaxonomy

13.4.2 Devised or Formal Classifications

13.4.3 Form and Form-Based Categorizations

13.4.3.1 Size and Proportions

13.4.3.2 Special Shape Terms

13.4.3.3 Geometric Forms and Contours

13.5 Why Classify Pottery?

14 Characterization

14.1 Historical Background

14.2 Methods

14.3 Research Design: Fieldwork and Field Sampling

14.3.1 Excavation Loci

14.3.2 Recovery and Processing

14.3.3 Collecting Resources

14.4 Interpretation

15 Quantification and Sampling Collections

15.1 Quantification

15.1.1 Counts and Measurements

15.1.2 Statistical Analysis

15.1.3 Sherds to Pots

15.2 Sampling

15.2.1 Sampling Pottery Collections

15.2.2 Selecting Individual Sherds

15.2.3 Sampling for Characterization

15.2.3.1 Research Question: The Basics

15.2.3.2 Considering Methods

15.2.4 Sampling for Chemical Compositional Analysis

16 Color

16.1 Human Perception of Color

16.2 Sources of Pottery Color and Its Variability

16.2.1 Organic Matter

16.2.2 Iron Compounds

16.2.3 Other Colorants

16.3 Measuring Color

16.4 What Are Color Measurements Used For?

17 Mineral and Chemical Composition

17.1 Mineral Analysis

17.1.1 Petrographic Characterization

17.1.2 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

17.2 Chemical Analysis

17.2.1 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

17.2.2 Laser Ablation–Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

17.2.3 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF)

17.2.4 Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE)

18 Physical and Mechanical Properties

18.1 Properties, Microstructure, and Stresses

18.1.1 Microstructure

18.1.2 Physical and Mechanical Stresses

18.2 Hardness and Strength

18.2.1 Hardness

18.2.2 Strength

18.3 Permeability and Porosity

18.3.1 Pores

18.3.2 Permeability

18.3.3 Porosity and Density

18.3.4 Additional Considerations

18.4 Cracks and Failure

18.5 Relations to Use

19 Thermal Behavior

19.1 Thermal Properties

19.2 Thermal Stresses and Shock

19.3 Stress and Shock Resistance

19.3.1 Intrinsic Properties

19.3.2 Microstructure

19.3.3 Shape and Design

19.4 Modifying Thermal Behavior

Part 5 Research Questions and Problems: Interpreting Archaeological Pottery

20 Production I: Location

20.1 Physical Indicators

20.1.1 Artifactual Indicators

20.1.2 Spatial Indicators

20.2 Provenience/Provenance

20.2.1 Compositional Analyses

20.2.2 Confounding Factors

20.2.2.1 Analytic Confounding Issues

20.2.2.2 Behavioral Confounding Issues

21 Production II: Organization

21.1 Mode, Scale, and Intensification

21.1.1 Mode of Production

21.1.2 Scale of Production

21.1.3 Intensification and Specialization

21.1.4 Mode, Scale, Intensification, and Complexity

21.2 Specialization

21.2.1 Types and Models of Specialized Production

21.2.1.1 Producer Specialization

21.2.1.2 Community Specialization

21.2.1.3 Resource Specialization

21.2.1.4 Product Specialization

21.2.2 Multicrafting

22 Production III: The Products

22.1 Attribute Variability and Specialization

22.1.1 Standardization

22.1.2 Diversity

22.2 Commodities and Commodification

22.2.1 Commodification

22.2.2 Commodities and Trade

22.3 Final Observations

23 Archaeothermometry

23.1 Physical Properties

23.2 Mineralogical and Chemical Analyses

23.2.1 Microscopy

23.2.2 Thermal Methods

23.2.3 X-Ray Diffraction

23.2.4 Mössbauer Spectroscopy

23.2.5 Magnetic Properties

23.2.6 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

23.3 Some Cautions

24 Style and Social Interaction

24.1 What Is Style?

24.2 What Does Pottery Style Do?

24.3 Archaeological Approaches to Pottery Style

24.3.1 Design Elements and Social Interaction

24.3.2 Hierarchical Design Structure Analysis

24.3.3 Symmetry Analysis

24.4 Style as Communication

24.4.1 Information Theory

24.4.2 Active or Passive?

24.4.3 Learning/Transmission

24.4.4 Visibility

24.4.5 Meaning

24.5 Further Developments

24.5.1 Theoretical Contexts

24.5.2 Style Change

24.5.3 In Sum . . .

25 Functions and Forms

25.1 Vessel Form, Technology, and Use

25.2 Indirect Evidence and Inferred Functions

25.2.1 Physical Attributes

25.2.2 Forms and Functions

25.2.3 Functions and Forms

25.2.3.1 Storage

25.2.3.2 Cooking

25.2.3.3 Transfer

25.3 Direct Evidence of Use

25.3.1 Residues: Identification of Contents

25.3.2 Sooting

25.3.3 Surface Attrition

25.4 The Hegemony of the Cookpot

Part 6 Then and Now; Now and Then

26 The Humility of Things

26.1 The Humility of Pottery

26.2 From Today to Yesterday

26.2.1 Change: The “Arts of Acculturation”

26.2.2 Decoration and Style

26.2.3 Form and Function

26.2.4 Production and Distribution

26.3 From Today to Yesterday: Some Questions

26.3.1 Status

26.3.2 Commodification and Specialization

26.4 Change and Conservatism

Glossary

Reference List

Index

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