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Modernizing Legacy Applications in PHP电子书

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作       者:Paul M. Jones

出  版  社:Packt Publishing

出版时间:2016-08-01

字       数:394.9万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 电脑/网络

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Get your code under control in a series of small, specific steps About This Book Learn to extract and replace legacy artifacts, Improve your application from the ground up while keeping your codebase fully operational, Improve the quality of your legacy applications. Who This Book Is For PHP developers from all skill levels will be able to get value from this book and will be able to transform their spaghetti code applications to clean, modular applications. If you are in the midst of a legacy refactor or you find yourself in a state of despair caused by the code you have inherited, this is the book for you. All you need is to have PHP 5.0 installed, and you’re all set to change the way you maintain and deploy your code! What You Will Learn Replace global and new with dependency injection Extract SQL statements to gateways Convert action logic to controllers Remove repeated logic in page *s Create maintainable PHP code from crufty legacy PHP In Detail Have you noticed that your legacy PHP application is composed of page *s placed directly in the document root of the web serverOr, do your page *s, along with any other classes and functions, combine the concerns of model, view, and controller into the same scopeIs the majority of the logical flow incorporated as include files and global functions rather than class methodsWorking with such a legacy application feels like dragging your feet through mud, doesn’t it?This book will show you how to modernize your application in terms of practice and technique, rather than in terms of using tools like frameworks and libraries, by extracting and replacing its legacy artifacts. We will use a step-by-step approach, moving slowly and methodically, to improve your application from the ground up. We’ll show you how dependency injection can replace both the new and global dependencies. We’ll also show you how to change the presentation logic to view files and the action logic to a controller. Moreover, we’ll keep your application running the whole time. Each completed step in the process will keep your codebase fully operational with higher quality. When we are done, you will be able to breeze through your code like the wind. Your code will be autoloaded, dependency-injected, unit-tested, layer-separated, and front-controlled. Most of the very limited code we will add to your application is specific to this book. We will be improving ourselves as programmers, as well as improving the quality of our legacy application. Style and approach This book gives developers an easy-to-follow, practical and powerful process to bring their applications up to a modern baseline. Each step in the book is practical, self-contained and moves you closer to the end goal you seek: maintainable code. As you follow the exercises in the book, the author almost anticipates your questions and you will have the answers, ready to be implemented on your project.
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Modernizing Legacy Applications in PHP

Table of Contents

Modernizing Legacy Applications in PHP

Credits

Foreword

About the Author

Acknowledgement

www.PacktPub.com

eBooks, discount offers, and more

Why subscribe?

Preface

1. Legacy Applications

The typical PHP application

File Structure

Page Scripts

Rewrite or Refactor?

The Pros and Cons of Rewriting

Why Don't Rewrites Work?

The Context-switching problem

The Knowledge problem

The Schedule Problem

Iterative Refactoring

Legacy Frameworks

Framework-based Legacy Applications

Refactoring to a Framework

Review and next steps

2. Prerequisites

Revision control

PHP version

Editor/IDE

Style Guide

Test suite

Review and next steps

3. Implement an Autoloader

PSR-0

A Single Location for Classes

Add Autoloader Code

As a Global Function

As a Closure

As a Static or Instance method

Using The __autoload() Function

Autoloader Priority

Common Questions

What If I Already Have An Autoloader?

What are the Performance Implications Of Autoloading?

How Do Class Names Map To File Names?

Review and next steps

4. Consolidate Classes and Functions

Consolidate Class Files

Find a candidate include

Move the class file

Remove the related include calls

Spot check the codebase

Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Consolidate functions into class files

Find a candidate include

Convert the function file to a class file

Change function calls to static method calls

Spot check the static method calls

Move the class file

Do ... While

Common Questions

Should we remove the autoloader include call?

How should we pick files for candidate include calls?

What if an include defines more than one class?

What if the one-class-per-file rule is disagreeable?

What if a Class or Function is defined inline?

What if a definition file also executes logic?

What if two classes have the same name?

What about third-party libraries?

What about system-wide libraries?

For functions, can we use instance methods instead of static methods?

Can we automate this process?

Review and next steps

5. Replace global With Dependency Injection

Global Dependencies

The replacement process

Find a global variable

Convert global variables to properties

Spot check the class

Convert global properties to constructor parameters

Convert instantiations to use parameters

Spot check, Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Common Questions

What if we find a global in a static method?

Is there an alternative conversion process?

What about class names in variables?

What about superglobals?

What about $GLOBALS?

Review and next steps

6. Replace new with Dependency Injection

Embedded instantiation

The replacement process

Find a new keyword

Extract One-Time creation to dependency injection

Extract repeated creation to factory

Change instantiation calls

Spot Check, Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Common Questions

What About Exceptions and SPL Classes?

What about Intermediary Dependencies?

Isn't this a lot of code?

Should a factory create collections?

Can we automate all these Injections?

Review and next steps

7. Write Tests

Fighting test resistance

The way of Testivus

Setting up a test suite

Install PHPUnit

Create a tests/ directory

Pick a class to test

Write a test case

Do ... While

Common Questions

Can we skip this step and do it later?

Come On, Really, Can We Do This Later?

What about hard-to-test classes?

What about our earlier characterization tests?

Should we test private and protected methods?

Can we change a test after we write it?

Do we need to test Third-party libraries?

What about code coverage?

Review and next steps

8. Extract SQL statements to Gateways

Embedded SQL Statements

The extraction process

Search for SQL statements

Move SQL to a Gateway class

Namespace and Class names

Method names

An initial Gateway class method

Defeating SQL Injection

Write a test

Replace the original code

Test, Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Common Questions

What about INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE Statements?

What about Repetitive SQL strings?

What about complex query strings?

What about queries inside non-Gateway classes?

Can we extend from a base Gateway class?

What about multiple queries and complex result structures?

What if there is no Database Class?

Review and next steps

9. Extract Domain Logic to Transactions

Embedded Domain Logic

Domain logic patterns

The Extraction Process

Search for uses of Gateway

Discover and Extract Relevant Domain Logic

Example Extraction

Spot check the remaining original code

Write tests for the extracted transactions

Spot check again, Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Common Questions

Are we talking about SQL transactions?

What about repeated Domain Logic?

Are printing and echoing part of Domain Logic?

Can a transaction be a class instead of a Method?

What about Domain Logic in Gateway classes?

What about Domain logic embedded in Non-Domain classes?

Review and next steps

10. Extract Presentation Logic to View Files

Embedded presentation logic

The Extraction process

Search for Embedded presentation logic

Rearrange the Page script and Spot Check

Extract Presentation to View file and Spot Check

Create a views/ Directory

Pick a View File name

Move Presentation Block to View file

Add Proper Escaping

Write View File Tests

The tests/views/ directory

Writing a View File Test

Asserting Correctness Of Content

Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Common Questions

What about Headers and Cookies?

What if we already have a Template system?

What about Streaming Content?

What if we have lots of Presentation variables?

What about class methods that generate output?

What about Business Logic Mixed into the presentation?

What if a page contains only presentation logic?

Review and next steps

11. Extract Action Logic to Controllers

Embedded action logic

The Extraction Process

Search for Embedded Action Logic

Rearrange the Page Script and Spot Check

Identify Code Blocks

Move Code to Its Related Block

Spot Check the Rearranged Code

Extract a Controller Class

Pick a Class Name

Create a Skeleton Class File

Move the Action Logic and Spot Check

Convert Controller to Dependency Injection and Spot Check

Write a Controller Test

Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Common Questions

Can we pass parameters to the Controller method?

Can a Controller have Multiple actions?

What If the Controller contains include Calls?

Review and next steps

12. Replace Includes in Classes

Embedded include Calls

The Replacement process

Search for include Calls

Replacing a Single include Call

Replacing Multiple include Calls

Copy include file to Class Method

Replace the original include Call

Discover coupled variables through testing

Replace other include Calls and Test

Delete the include file and test

Write a test and refactor

Convert to Dependency Injection and test

Commit, Push, Notify QA

Do ... While

Common QuestionsCan one class receive logic from many include files?

What about include calls originating in non-class files?

Review and next steps

13. Separate Public and Non-Public Resources

Intermingled resources

The separation process

Coordinate with operations personnel

Create a document root directory

Reconfigure the server

Move public resources

Commit, push, coordinate

Common Questions

Is This Really Necessary?

Review and next steps

14. Decouple URL Paths from File Paths

Coupled Paths

The Decoupling Process

Coordinate with Operations

Add a Front Controller

Create a pages/ Directory

Reconfigure the Server

Spot check

Move Page scripts

Commit, Push, Coordinate

Common Questions

Did we really Decouple the Paths?

Review and next steps

15. Remove Repeated Logic in Page Scripts

Repeated logic

The Removal Process

Modify the Front controller

Remove Logic from Page Scripts

Spot Check, Commit, Push, Notify QA

Common Questions

What if the Setup Work Is Inconsistent?

What if we used inconsistent naming?

Review and next steps

16. Add a Dependency Injection Container

What is a Dependency Injection Container?

Adding a DI Container

Add a DI Container Include File

Add a Router Service

Modify the Front Controller

Extract Page Scripts to Services

Create a Container Service

Route the URL Path to the Container Service

Spot Check and Commit

Do ... While

Remove pages/, Commit, Push, Notify QA

Common Questions

How can we refine our service definitions?

What if there are includes In the Page Script?

Can we reduce the size of the services.php file?

Can we reduce the size of the router service?

What if we cannot update to PHP 5.3?

Review and next steps

17. Conclusion

Opportunities for improvement

Conversion to Framework

Review and next steps

A. Typical Legacy Page Script

B. Code before Gateways

C. Code after Gateways

D. Code after Transaction Scripts

E. Code before Collecting Presentation Logic

F. Code after Collecting Presentation Logic

G. Code after Response View File

H. Code after Controller Rearrangement

I. Code after Controller Extraction

J. Code after Controller Dependency Injection

Index

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