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Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition电子书

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作       者:Everett M. Rogers

出  版  社:Free Press

出版时间:2003-08-16

字       数:137.2万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 经管/金融

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Now in its fifth edition, Diffusion of Innovations is a classic work on the spread of new ideas.In this renowned book, Everett M. Rogers, professor and chair of the Department of Communication & Journalism at the University of New Mexico, explains how new ideas spread via communication channels over time. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. To overcome this uncertainty, most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea. Thus the diffusion process consists of a few individuals who first adopt an innovation, then spread the word among their circle of acquaintances a process which typically takes months or years. But there are exceptions: use of the Internet in the 1990s, for example, may have spread more rapidly than any other innovation in the history of humankind. Furthermore, the Internet is changing the very nature of diffusion by decreasing the importance of physical distance between people. The fifth edition addresses the spread of the Internet, and how it has transformed the way human beings communicate and adopt new ideas.
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Cover

Dedication

Preface

Chapter 1: Elements of Diffusion

Water Boiling in a Peruvian Village: Diffusion That Failed

What is Diffusion?

Controlling Scurvy in the British Navy

Nondiffusion of the Dvorak Keyboard

Four Main Elements in the Diffusion of Innovations

1. The Innovation

2. Communication Channels

3. Time

4. A Social System

Diffusion of Hybrid Corn in Iowa

Summary

Chapter 2: A History of Diffusion Research

The Beginnings of Diffusion Research in Europe

Gabriel Tarde and Imitation

Georg Simmel’s Stranger

The British and German-Austrian Diffusionists

The Rise of Diffusion Research Traditions

Paradigms and Invisible Colleges

The Anthropology Research Tradition

Miracle Rice in Bali: the Goddess and the Computer

Early Sociology

Rural Sociology

The Diffusion of Modern Math in Pittsburgh

Worldwide Diffusion of the Kindergarten

Public Health and Medical Sociology

The Columbia University Drug Diffusion Study

The Taichung Field Experiment

STOP AIDS in San Francisco

Communication

Diffusion of News of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks

Marketing

Opinion Leaders and Mavens in the Diffusion of Electric Cars

Geography

General Sociology

Networks in Recruitment to Freedom Summer

Trends by Diffusion Research Traditions

A Typology of Diffusion Research

Summary

Chapter 3: Contributions and Criticisms of Diffusion Research

The Status of Diffusion Research Today

Criticisms of Diffusion Research

The Pro-Innovation Bias of Diffusion Research

Pure Drinking Water in Egyptian Villages

Preference for Sons in India and China

The Individual-Blame Bias in Diffusion Research

The Recall Problem in Diffusion Research

The Issue of Equality in the Diffusion of Innovations

Summary

Chapter 4: The Generation of Innovations

The Innovation-Development Process

1. Recognizing a Problem or Need

2. Basic and Applied Research

Birth of the Laptop Computer at Toshiba

3. Development

How the Refrigerator Got Its Hum

Classifying the Segway

4. Commercialization

Fumbling the Future at Xerox PARC

5. Diffusion and Adoption

6. Consequences

Serendipity in the Discovery of Warfarin

Socioeconomic Status, Equality, and Innovation Development

Hard Tomatoes in California

Tracing the Innovation-Development Process

The Shortcomings of Tracer Studies

Future Research on the Innovation-Development Process

The Agricultural Extension Model

Summary

Chapter 5: The Innovation-Decision Process

A Model of the Innovation-Decision Process

The Knowledge Stage

Which Comes First, Needs or Awareness of an Innovation?

Three Types of Knowledge About an Innovation

Early Versus Late Knowers of Innovations

The Persuasion Stage

The Decision Stage

The Implementation Stage

Re-Invention

How Much Re-Invention Occurs?

Re-Invention Is Not Necessarily Bad

Why Does Re-Invention Occur?

Re-Invention of Horse Culture by the Plains Indians

The Confirmation Stage

Dissonance

Discontinuance

The Discontinuance of Smoking

Forced Discontinuance and the Rise of Organic Farming

Are There Stages in the Innovation-Decision Process?

Process Versus Variance Research

Evidence of Stages

The Hierarchy-of-Effects

Stages-of-Change

Communication Channels in the Innovation-Decision Process for Tetracycline

Communication Channels by Stages in the Innovation-Decision Process

Categorizing Communication Channels

Mass Media Versus Interpersonal Channels

Cosmopolite Versus Localite Channels

The Bass Forecasting Model

Communication Channels by Adopter Categories

The Innovation-Decision Period

The Rate of Awareness-Knowledge and Rate of Adoption

The Length of the Innovation-Decision Period by Adopter Category

How the Internet Is Changing the Innovation-Decision Process

Summary

Chapter 6: Attributes of Innovations and their Rate of Adoption

Black Music in White America: Rap

Rate of Adoption

Research on the Attributes of Innovations

Measuring the Attributes of Innovations

Organizations as the Units of Adoption

Postdiction Versus Prediction

An Agricultural Innovation That Failed

Relative Advantage

Economic Factors and Rate of Adoption

Status Aspects of Innovations

Overadoption

Relative Advantage and Rate of Adoption

Preventive Innovations

The Effects of Incentives

Mandates for Adoption

Compatibility

Compatibility with Values and Beliefs

Compatibility with Previously Introduced Ideas

Compatibility with Needs

Photovoltaics on a Million Roofs

The Daughter-in-Law Who Doesn’t Speak

Compatibility and Rate of Adoption

Technology Clusters

Naming an Innovation

Positioning an Innovation

Acceptability Research

Indigenous Knowledge Systems

Complexity

Trialability

Observability

Cellular Telephones and the Lifestyle Revolution

Summary

Chapter 7: Innovativeness and Adopter Categories

Diffusion of Farm Innovations in a Colombian Village in the Andes

Classifying Adopter Categories on the Basis of Innovativeness

The S-Shaped Curve of Adoption and Normality

Measuring Organizational Innovativeness

Who Adopts?

Adopter Categorization

Adopter Categories as Ideal Types

Innovators: Venturesome

Early Adopters: Respect

Early Majority: Deliberate

Late Majority: Skeptical

Laggards: Traditional

People Who Said No to Innovation: The Old Order Amish

Characteristics of Adopter Categories

Socioeconomic Characteristics

Personality Variables

Communication Behavior

Audience Segmentation and Adopter Categories

Cell Phone Laggards in Hong Kong

The Innovativeness/Needs Paradox and the Strategy of Least Resistance

Network Influences on Innovativeness

Summary

Chapter 8: Diffusion Networks

Opinion Leadership in the Diffusion of Modern Math

Models of Communication Flows

The Hypodermic Needle Model

The Two-Step Flow Model

Homophily and Heterophily in Communication Networks

Homophily and Heterophily

Homophily as a Barrier to Diffusion

Measuring Opinion Leadership and Network Links

The Role of Alpha Pups in the Viral Marketing of a Cool Electronics Game

Monomorphic and Polymorphic Opinion Leadership

Paul Revere’s Ride

Characteristics of Opinion Leaders

External Communication

Accessibility

Socioeconomic Status

Innovativeness

Innovativeness, Opinion Leadership, and System Norms

Opinion Leader Organizations

Do Opinion Leaders Matter?

Networks in the Diffusion of a Medical Drug

Diffusion Networks

Building a Network for the Diffusion of Photovoltaics in the Dominican Republic

Cluster Studies

Dr. John Snow and the Cholera Epidemic in London

Communication Network Analysis

The Strength-of-Weak-Ties Theory

Who Is Linked to Whom in Networks?

Social Learning Theory

The Critical Mass in the Diffusion of Interactive Innovations

The Critical Mass in the Diffusion of Fax

Diffusion of the Internet

The Concept of Critical Mass

Watching While Being Watched

The Sleeper

Individual Thresholds for Adoption

Why Do Individuals Adopt Prior to the Critical Mass?

Networks and the Turbocharger Effect

Strategies for Getting to Critical Mass

Summary

Chapter 9: The Change Agent

Targeting

Change Agents as Linkers

The Sequence of Change Agent Roles

Coercion in Norplant Diffusion Safaris in Indonesia

Factors in Change Agent Success

Change Agent Efforts

Client Orientation

Compatibility with Clients’ Needs

Sustainability: “Chicken” Davis in Nigeria

Change Agent Empathy

Communication Campaigns

The ORT Campaign in Egypt

Homophily and Change Agent Contact

Change Agents’ Contact with Lower-Status Clients

Para-Professional Aides

Change Agent Credibility

Inauthentic Professionalization of Aides

The Baltimore Needle-Exchange Project

The Use of Opinion Leaders

The Role of Demonstrations

Clients’ Evaluative Ability

The Agricultural Extension Service

Centralized and Decentralized Diffusion Systems

Advantages and Disadvantages of Decentralized Diffusion

Summary

Chapter 10: Innovation in Organizations

Types of Innovation-Decisions

Organizations

Virtual Organizations

Organizational Innovativeness

Size and Organizational Innovativeness

Structural Characteristics and Organizational Innovativeness

The Role of Champions

The Innovation Process in Organizations

Adoption of New Communication Technologies

Stages in the Innovation Process

1. Agenda-Setting

2. Matching

3. Redefining/Restructuring

4. Clarifying

5. Routinizing

The Santa Monica Freeway Diamond Lane Experiment: Implementation Failure

New Communication Technologies in Organizations

Summary

Chapter 11: Consequences of Innovations

Snowmobile Revolution in the Arctic

Studying Consequences

Classifications of Consequences

Desirable Versus Undesirable Consequences

Direct Versus Indirect Consequences

ORT: The Consequences of Consequences

Anticipated Versus Unanticipated Consequences

Steel Axes for Stone-Age Aborigines

Form, Function, and Meaning of an Innovation

The Irish Potato Famine

Achieving a Dynamic Equilibrium

The Mosquito Killer

Equality in the Consequences of Innovations

The Communication Effects Gap

Gap-Widening Consequences of the Diffusion of Innovations

Social Structure and the Equality of Consequences

Strategies for Narrowing Gaps

Wider Gaps Are Not Inevitable

The Digital Divide

Summary

Glossary

About the Author

Bibliography

Name Index

Subject Index

Copyright

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