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Volcanic Islands电子书

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作       者:Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882

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出版时间:2017-11-28

字       数:28.1万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 文学/自传/回忆录

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he preparation of the series of works published under the general title "Geology of the Voyage of the 'Beagle'" occupied a great part of Darwin's time during the ten years that followed his return to England. The second volume of the series, entitled "Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands, with Brief Notices on the Geology of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope," made its appearance in 1844. The materials for this volume were collected in part during the outward voyage, when the "Beagle" called at St. Jago in the Cape de Verde Islands, and St.
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CRITICAL INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER I. ST. JAGO, IN THE CAPE DE VERDE ARCHIPELAGO.

(FIGURE 1: MAP 1: PART OF ST. JAGO, ONE OF THE CAPE DE VERDE ISLANDS.)

MINERALOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE ROCKS OF THE LOWEST SERIES.

DESCRIPTION OF THE CALCAREOUS DEPOSIT OVERLYING THE FOREGOING VOLCANIC ROCKS.

THE EXTENT AND HORIZONTALITY OF THE CALCAREOUS STRATUM.

THE BASALTIC LAVA, SUPERINCUMBENT ON THE CALCAREOUS DEPOSIT.

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS SUBSEQUENT TO THE ELEVATION OF THE COASTLAND; THE EJECTED MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH EARTHY LIME.

SIGNAL POST HILL.

INLAND HILLS OF MORE ANCIENT VOLCANIC ROCKS.

VALLEYS NEAR THE COAST.

RECENT CONGLOMERATE.

CHAPTER II. FERNANDO NORONHA; TERCEIRA; TAHITI, ETC.

FERNANDO NORONHA.

TERCEIRA IN THE AZORES.

EFFECTS OF STEAM ON THE TRACHYTIC ROCKS.

TAHITI (OTAHEITE).

MAURITIUS.

ST. PAUL'S ROCKS.

A GLOSSY INCRUSTATION.

CHAPTER III. ASCENSION.

(MAP 2: THE ISLAND OF ASCENSION.)

BASALTIC ROCKS.

VOLCANIC BOMBS.

AERIFORM EXPLOSIONS.

EJECTED GRANITIC FRAGMENTS.

TRACHYTIC SERIES OF ROCKS.

VEINS IN THE EARTHY TRACHYTIC MASSES.

SILICEOUS SINTER AND JASPER.

CONCRETIONS IN PUMICEOUS TUFF.

FORMATION OF CALCAREOUS ROCKS ON THE SEA-COAST.

A FRONDESCENT CALCAREOUS INCRUSTATION.

SINGULAR LAMINATED BEDS ALTERNATING WITH AND PASSING INTO OBSIDIAN.

FIRST.

SECONDLY.

THIRDLY.

FOURTHLY.

FIFTHLY.

COMPARISON OF THE OBSIDIAN BEDS AND ALTERNATING STRATA OF ASCENSION, WITH THOSE OF OTHER COUNTRIES.

LAMINATION OF VOLCANIC ROCKS OF THE TRACHYTIC SERIES.

CHAPTER IV. ST. HELENA.

BASALTIC SERIES.

BASAL SUBMARINE LAVAS.

FLAGSTAFF HILL AND THE BARN.

TURK'S CAP AND PROSPEROUS BAYS.

BASALTIC RING.

THE CENTRAL CURVED RIDGE.

SUPERFICIAL DEPOSITS.

BEDS OF EXTINCT LAND-SHELLS.

ELEVATION OF THE LAND.

COAST DENUDATION.

CRATERS OF ELEVATION.

CHAPTER V. GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO.

(FIGURE 11. MAP 3. GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO.

CHATHAM ISLAND. CRATERS COMPOSED OF A SINGULAR KIND OF TUFF.

(FIGURE 12. THE KICKER ROCK, 400 FEET HIGH.)

SMALL BASALTIC CRATERS.

ALBEMARLE ISLAND.

FLUIDITY OF DIFFERENT LAVAS.

CRATERS OF TUFF.

BANKS' COVE.

JAMES ISLAND.

SEGMENT OF A BASALTIC CRATER.

PSEUDO-EXTRANEOUS, EJECTED FRAGMENTS.

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE TUFF-CRATERS.

MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ROCKS.

ELEVATION OF THE LAND.

DIRECTION OF THE FISSURES OF ERUPTION.

CHAPTER VI. TRACHYTE AND BASALT.—DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANIC ISLES.

ON THE SEPARATION OF THE CONSTITUENT MINERALS OF LAVA, ACCORDING TO THEIR SPECIFIC GRAVITIES.

ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANIC ISLANDS.

CHAPTER VII. AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

STRATIFICATION OF THE ESCARPMENT.

CURRENT-CLEAVAGE.

VALLEYS IN THE SANDSTONE PLATFORMS.

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.

TRAVERTIN WITH EXTINCT PLANTS.

ELEVATION OF THE LAND.

KING GEORGE'S SOUND.

SUPERFICIAL FERRUGINOUS BEDS.

SUPERFICIAL CALCAREOUS DEPOSIT.

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

SANDSTONE FORMATION.

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