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Stonehenge: Neolithic Man and the Cosmos电子书

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作       者:John North

出  版  社:HarperCollins Publishers

出版时间:2016-11-24

字       数:129.2万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 法律/政治/宗教

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JOHN NORTH moved in 1977 from Oxford to the University of Groningen, where he is Professor of the History of Philosophy and the Exact Sciences. He is a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy, the Royal Danish Academy and is a Fellow of the British Academy.
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Title Page

Copyright

Praise

Dedication

Contents

List of Figures

Glossary

Preface

Chronology

1. Introduction

The People

Alignments and Orientations

2. The Long Barrows

Neolithic Chamber-Tombs—an Introduction

Orientation of the Body

Inconstant Stars

First Thoughts on the Taper of Long Barrows

The Orientation of Long Barrows

Fussell’s Lodge

Wayland’s Smithy I

Wayland’s Smithy II

Frame and Form at Wayland’s Smithy

Fussell’s Lodge Revisited

Lambourn

Horslip (Windmill Hill)

West Kennet and its Star Chambers

The West Kennet Ditches

The West Kennet Neighbourhood. Silbury Hill

Beckhampton Road. Stars and the Sun

South Street

Skendleby: Giants’ Hills 1 and 2. Stars and Sun

The Radley Parallelogram

The Grendon Square Barrow

Hazleton North and Burn Ground—Cotswold–Severn Long Cairns

An Assessment

A Postscript on Venus

A Postscript on Chance

3. Cursus and Enclosure

The Great Earthen Monuments

Windmill Hill and Barrow Rings

The Two Stonehenge Cursus and their Dorset Precursor

The Probable Evolution of the Dorset Cursus

Another Bokerley Cursus?

The Lesser Stonehenge Cursus

Long Barrows, Territories and Totems

The Greater Stonehenge Cursus

The Coombe Bissett Parallelogram

4. Stars in Chalk

The Uffington White Horse

The Wilmington Long Man and Neighbouring Barrows

The History of the Long Man and his Staves

The Bledlow and Whiteleaf Crosses

The Cerne Giant

5. Sun and Moon

The Seasons: an Astronomical Sketch

Risings and Settings of the Sun and Moon

Some Examples of Extremes of Rising and Setting

6. Avenue and Row

From Cursus to Avenue

Pits and Posts

Avenue and Row

The Stonehenge Avenue

The Stone Rows. Tracks across Dartmoor

The Avenues near Avebury: Introduction

The West Kennet Avenue

The Beckhampton Avenue

The Principle of Tangent and Centre

Long Barrow, Cursus, Avenue and Row

7. Treehenge and Aubrey Circle

Changes of Style

Henges of Timber

Barrow Rings in the Low Countries

Harenermolen and the Counting of Holes

Harenermolen: Symmetries and the Spacings of Rings

Probable Styles of Observation Using Posts

Harenermolen: Alignments in Both Rings

Numbers of Posts

The Earliest Stonehenge Structures

Why Fifty-six Aubrey Holes?

Ditch, Bank, Treehenge and Aubrey Holes

The Aubrey Holes and Normanton Down Tracks

Post Numbers as a Guide to Events

8. The Great Treehenges

Stonehenge’s Timber Ancestry

Woodhenge

Woodhenge: the Supernumerary Posts

Woodhenge: the Third Dimension

Woodhenge: the Integration of Sun and Moon

Durrington Walls: the Constant Horizon

Durrington Walls: the Circles

Durrington Walls: the Dimensions of the Posts

Durrington Walls: the Southern ‘Façade’

Durrington Walls: the Four-Posters and Post Rows

Mount Pleasant

Mount Pleasant: Alignments on Stars

Mount Pleasant: the Glare of the Sky

The Henge at Arminghall

Treehenge and Barrow

9. Stonehenge Astronomy—A Historical Prologue

First Reports

Stonehenge and the First Calculators

Symbolism on a Grand Scale

The Coming of the Theodolite

10. Stonehenge—An Inventory

Banks and Ditch

Timber Posts and Rings. Post Holes A

The Aubrey Holes

Bluestones in the Q- and R-Holes

Stone 97 and the Heel Stone (96) and its Ditch

The Avenue

Stones B and C, and the Hollow

The Sarsen Trilithons

The Ring of Sarsens

Stone Holes D, E and the Ditch Stone

The Station Stones (91–94)

The Altar Stone (80)

The Slaughter Stone (95) and Holes D and E again

The Extant Bluestone Circle

The Bluestone Horseshoe

The History of the Dressed Bluestones

The Y- and Z-Holes

11. The First Three Stonehenges

The Q-R Henge

Reversible Alignments

The Levels of the Sarsen Trilithons and Circle

The Geometry of the Sarsen Pillars

The Geometry of Obscuration

The Blocking of Rays through the Q- and R-Circles

Sarsen Ring and Midwinter Sun

Altar Stone and Midwinter Sun

Geometers, Engineers and Astronomers

The Sarsen Ring and Midsummer?

The Sarsen Ring and the Moon

The Moon and the Stone Stations

The Trilithons

The Trilithons—an Independent Monument?

The Geometrical Design

A Chronological Summary

12. Lozenge and Calendar

The Lozenge Motif

Bush Barrow

The Bush Barrow Lozenge Was Not a Calendar

The Lozenge as Geometrical Construct

The Lozenge as Symbol

13. Ritual and Belief

Tokens of Religion

Signs of a Priesthood?

The Objects of Worship

Myth, Explanation and Logic

Solar Symbols

High Places

Sun, Moon and Sacrifice

The Cult of the Ox

Prejudice and Principle

Appendix 1—Radiocarbon Dating

Appendix 2—The Astronomical Framework

Appendix 3—Tables of Directions

Appendix 4—Heliacal Rising and Setting

Appendix 5—The Rising and Setting of Venus

Appendix 6—Alignment in Later Religions

Footnotes

Bibliography

Index

Acknowledgements

About the Author

Other Books By

About the Publisher

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