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旧制度与大革命:双语版电子书

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作       者:(法)托克维尔(Alexis de Tocqueville)

出  版  社:中国友谊出版社

出版时间:2013-01-01

字       数:45.6万

所属分类: 人文社科 > 历史 > 世界史

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一、大革命前的法国和当代中国有些地方很相似。大革命摧毁了旧制度,但法国人还是原来的法国人,所以大革命后建立的新制度和旧制度如出一辙;大革命摧毁了旧制度下的行政体系却保留了官员免责制;穷人免税、富人缴税的政策从根本上毁坏了旧制度;大承包商和官吏享有同样的待遇;公文风格千篇一律;政府的办事效率低到修缮某教堂神父的住所都需要两三年的时间审批;法国人热爱做公务员,几乎到了痴狂的地步;所有农村人都涌向巴黎,于是地价飞涨;……二、内容充实,文风犀利,是良好的思想磨刀石。《旧制度与大革命》探讨的是法国大革命,原有的封建制度由于腐败和不得人心而崩溃,但社会动荡却并未带来革命党预期的结果,无论是统治者还是民众,后都被相互间的怒火所吞噬。《旧制度与大革命》写于1851年到1856年之间,当时的法国正处在拿破仑三世(拿破仑一世的侄子)统治的第二帝国的时代。信奉自由主义的托克维尔对拿破仑三世非常失望和悲观,《旧制度与大革命》就是在这段政治大变动时期酝酿成熟的,其中浸透着对法国命运的深沉思考,和对拿破仑三世的强烈不满。
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旧制度与大革命

出版序 为什么大家都在读一本历史书

前言 这不是历史

第一篇

第1章 大革命爆发时,舆论褒贬不一

第2章 法国大革命的最终目的

第3章 宗教革命的形式和政治革命的本质

第4章 欧洲制度如出一辙,陷于全面崩溃

第5章 法国大革命的特有成果

第二篇

第1章 为什么法国人最难忍受封建特权

第2章 中央集权制来源于旧制度而不是大革命和帝国

第3章 监管国家是旧制度的体制

第4章 旧制度:官员免责制与行政司法合一

第5章 权力集中为什么扎根于旧制度但没有摧毁它

第6章 旧制度的行政方式和习惯

第7章 巴黎之于法国,大于伦敦之于英国

第8章 千人一面的法国

第9章 分裂与冷漠的法国

第10章 旧制度灭亡的根源:穷人纳税,富人免税

第11章 旧制度下的自由

第12章 18世纪的法国农民比13世纪时更悲惨

第13章 文人成为政治领袖及其后果

第14章 反宗教倾向对大革命的影响

第15章 先改革,再自由

第16章 繁荣加速了大革命的到来

第17章 努力减轻民众负担,反而激起了人民的反叛

第18章 旧政府完成对民众的革命教育

第19章 行政革命成了政治革命的先导

第20章 大革命在旧制度中自发形成

The old regime and the revolution

PREFACE.

CHAPTER I. CONTRADICTORY OPINIONS FORMED UPON THE REVOLUTION WHEN IT BROKE OUT.

CHAPTER II. THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL AND FINAL OBJECT OF THE REVOLUTION WAS NOT, AS SOME HAVE SUPPOSED, TO DESTROY RELIGIOUS AND TO WEAKEN POLITICAL AUTHORITY.

CHAPTER III. THAT THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, THOUGH POLITICAL, PURSUED THE SAME COURSE AS A RELIGIOUS REVOLUTION, AND WHY.

CHAPTER IV. HOW THE SAME INSTITUTIONS HAD BEEN ESTABLISHED OVER NEARLY ALL EUROPE, AND WERE EVERY WHERE FALLING TO PIECES.

CHAPTER V. WHAT DID THE FRENCH REVOLUTION REALLY ACHIEVE?

BOOK SECOND.

CHAPTER I. WHY THE FEUDAL RIGHTS WERE MORE ODIOUS TO THE PEOPLE IN FRANCE THAN ANY WHERE ELSE.

CHAPTER II. THAT WE OWE“ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRALIZATION,”NOT TO THE REVOLUTION OR THE EMPIRE, AS SOME SAY, BUT TO THE OLD REGIME

CHAPTER III. THAT WHAT IS NOW CALLED“THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THE STATE”(TUTELLE ADMINISTRATIVE)WAS AN INSTITUTION OF THE OLD REGIME.

CHAPTER IV. THAT ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNALS(LA JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE)AND OFFICIAL IRRESPONSIBILITY(GARANTIS DES FONCTIONNAIRES)WERE INSTITUTIONS OF THE OLD REGIME.

CHAPTER V. HOW CENTRALIZATION CREPT IN AMONG THE OLD AUTHORITIES, AND SUPPLANTED WITHOUT DESTROYING THEM.

CHAPTER VI. OF OFFICIAL MANNERS AND CUSTOMS UNDER THE OLD REGIME.

CHAPTER VII. HOW THE CAPITAL OF FRANCE HAD ACQUIRED MORE PREPONDERANCE OVER THE PROVINCES, AND USURPED MORE CONTROL OVER THE NATION, THAN ANY OTHER CAPITAL IN EUROPE.

CHAPTER VIII. THAT FRENCHMEN HAD GROWN MORE LIKE EACH OTHER THAN ANY OTHER PEOPLE.

CHAPTER IX. THAT THESE MEN, WHO WERE SO ALIKE, WERE MORE DIVIDED THAN THEY HAD EVER BEEN INTO PETTY GROUPS, EACH INDEPENDENT OF AND INDIFFERENT TO THE OTHERS.

CHAPTER X. HOW THE DESTRUCTION OF POLITICAL LIBERTY AND CLASS DIVISIONS WERE THE CAUSES OF ALL THE DISEASES OF WHICH THE OLD REGIME DIED.

CHAPTER XI. OF THE KIND OF LIBERTY ENJOYED UNDER THE OLD REGIME, AND OF ITS INFLUENCE UPON THE REVOLUTION.

CHAPTER XII. HOW THE CONDITION OF THE FRENCH PEASANTRY WAS WORSE IN SOME RESPECTS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY THAN IT HAD BEEN IN THE THIRTEENTH, NOTWITHSTANDING THE PROGRESS OF CIVILIZATION.

CHAPTER XIII. HOW, TOWARD THE MIDDLE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, LITERARY MEN BECAME THE LEADING POLITICIANS OF THE COUNTRY, AND OF THE EFFECTS THEREOF.

CHAPTER XIV. HOW IRRELIGION BECAME A GENERAL RULING PASSION AMONG FRENCHMEN IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, AND OF THE INFLUENCE IT EXERCISED OVER THE CHARACTER OF THE REVOLUTION.

CHAPTER XV. HOW THE FRENCH SOUGHT REFORMS BEFORE LIBERTIES.

CHAPTER XVI. THAT THE REIGN OF LOUIS XVI. WAS THE MOST PROSPEROUS ERA OF THE OLD MONARCHY, AND HOW THAT PROSPERITY REALLY HASTENED THE REVOLUTION.

CHAPTER XVII. HOW ATTEMPTS TO RELIEVE THE PEOPLE PROVOKED REBELLION.

CHAPTER XVIII. OF CERTAIN PRACTICES BY MEANS OF WHICH THE GOVERNMENT COMPLETED THE REVOLUTIONARY EDUCATION OF THE PEOPLE.

CHAPTER XIX. HOW GREAT ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGES HAD PRECEDED THE POLITICAL REVOLUTION, AND OF THE CONSEQUENCES THEREOF.

CHAPTER XX. HOW THE REVOLUTION SPRANG SPONTANEOUSLY OUT OF THE PRECEDING FACTS.

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