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作       者:高剑峰

出  版  社:中国中医药出版社

出版时间:2018-08-01

字       数:57.5万

所属分类: 教育 > 大中专教材 > 研究生/本科/专科教材

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《生理学》(双语)教材作为“十三五”期间的创新教材,以全英正文为基础、配合以脚注形式的对重和难内容行中文翻译。本教材共分十二章,*章主要介绍生理学的基本概念与基本知识,第二章介绍细胞生理的基本内容,其余章节分别介绍构成人体的各大系统,如心血管系统、呼吸系统、消化系统、泌尿系统、神经系统和内分泌系统等的生理功能。 《生理学》(双语)教材作为“十三五”期间的创新教材,以全英正文为基础、配合以脚注形式的对重和难内容行中文翻译。本教材共分十二章,*章主要介绍生理学的基本概念与基本知识,第二章介绍细胞生理的基本内容,其余章节分别介绍构成人体的各大系统,如心血管系统、呼吸系统、消化系统、泌尿系统、神经系统和内分泌系统等的生理功能。
【作者】
高剑峰,男,1972年10月生,医学博士,教授。中国中西医结合学会青年工作委员会会员,中国生理学会会员,河南省生理学会理事。长期致力于中枢神经系统损伤病理生理机制和中医药防治研究,并结合现代科学思路与方法深探索中西医药治疗的机制。在老年缺血性脑损伤、神经细胞再生、血管再生及其信号转导机制特、不同发育阶段脑内源性神经干细胞增殖分化机制和信号转导及其影响因素、抗中枢神经系统损伤药物研制等研究方面取得创新性成果。
目录展开

编写说明

Chapter1 INTRODUCTION

Section 1 Content of physiology

1 Research object and task of physiology

2 Research methods

2.1 Acute experiment

2.2 Chronic experiments

3 Three levels of physiological studies

3.1 The integral level

3.2 The organ and system level

3.3 The cell and molecular level

Section 2 The shared basic characteristics of all life’s activities

1 Metabolism

2 Excitability

3 Adaptability

4 Reproduction

Section 3 Internal environment and homeostasis

1 Body fluid and internal environment

2 Homeostasis

Section 4 The regulation mechanism of body’s physiological function

1 Neuroregulation

2 Humoral regulation

2.1 Endocrine agents

2.2 Paracrine agents

2.3 Autocrine agents

3 Autoregulation

Section 5 Automatic control principle of the body function

1 Feedback

1.1 Negative feedback

1.2 Positive feedback

2 Feedforward

Chapter2 BASIC FUNCTIONS OF CELLS

Section 1 The basic structure of cell membrane and transmembrane transport

1 Membrane structure and chemical composition

1.1 The lipid bilayer

1.2 Cell membrane proteins

1.3 Membrane carbohydrates - the cell “glycocalyx”

2 Membrane transport

2.1 Passive transport

2.2 Active transport

2.3 Exocytosis and endocytosis

Section 2 Transmembrane signaling transduction

1 G protein coupled receptor mediated signal transduction

2 Enzyme coupled receptor mediated signal transduction

3 Ion channel mediated signal transduction

Section 3 Cell bioelectrical phenomenon

1 Resting potential

1.1 Recording of resting potential

1.2 Genesis of the resting potential

2 Action potential

2.1 Recording of action potential

2.2 All-or-None law

2.3 Genesis of action potential

3 Local potential and the cause and conduction of excitation on the same cell

3.1 Action potential transport along the nerve fiber

3.2 Stimulus and excitation

3.2.1 Conditions of effective stimulus

3.2.2 Electrotonic potentials, local response and firing level

3.2.3 Changes in excitability during electrotonic potentials

Section 4 Contraction of muscle cells

1 Striated muscle

1.1 Physiologic anatomy of striated muscle

1.1.1 Myofibrils and sarcomere

1.1.2 Molecular structure of the myofibril

1.1.3 Sarcotubular system

1.2 Molecular mechanism of contraction

1.3 Single twitch and tetanus of skeletal muscle

1.4 Factors influencing contractionefficiency of striated muscles

1.4.1 Effect of preload

1.4.2 Effect of afterload

2 Smooth muscle

2.1 Singe-unit smooth muscle

2.2 Multi-unit smooth muscle

Chapter3 BlOOD

Section 1 The blood composition and physical and chemical properties

1 Blood composition and blood volume

1.1 Hematocrit

1.2 Blood volume

2 The main components of plasma

3 Blood physical and chemical properties

3.1 Density

3.2 Viscosity

3.3 Osmotic pressure

3.3.1 Osmosis and osmotic pressure

3.3.2 Plasma osmotic pressure

3.3.3 Isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic fluids

3.4 Plasma pH

Section 2 Blood cell physiology

1 Red blood cell

1.1 The morphology and number of red blood cells

1.2 Physiological characteristics of red blood cells

1.3 Physiological function of red blood cells

1.4 The hematopoietic process in bone marrow

1.5 Erythropoiesis necessary material

1.5.1 Iron

1.5.2 Folic acid and vitamin B12

1.6 Regulation of erythropoiesis

1.7 Red blood cell destruction

2 White blood cell

2.1 The number and classification of white blood cells count

2.2 Physiological characteristics and functions of leukocytes

2.3 Regulation of leukocyte production

2.4 White blood cell life

3 Blood platelet

3.1 Platelet morphology and number

3.2 Physiological characteristics

3.3 Function of platelets

3.3.1 Participating in physiological hemostasis

3.3.2 Promoting coagulation

3.3.3 Repairing of vascular wall

Section 3 Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis

1 Blood coagulation

1.1 Coagulation factors

1.2 Blood coagulation process

1.2.1 Endogenous coagulation pathway

1.2.2 Extrinsic coagulation pathway

2 Anticoagulation

2.1 Tissue factor pathway inhibitor

2.2 Thrombin

2.3 Antithrombin III

2.4 Heparin

3 Fibrinolysis and anti – fibrinolysis

3.1 Fibrinolysis

3.1.1 Process of fibrinolysis

3.1.2 Plasminogen activators

3.2 Inhibitors of fibrinolysis

Section 4 Blood types and blood transfusion

1 Blood type

1.1 ABO blood group system

1.1.1 Classification of ABO blood group system

1.1.2 ABO blood group inheritance

1.2 Rh blood group system

1.3 White blood cells and platelet blood group

2 Blood transfusion and cross-match test

Chapter4 BlOOD CIRCULATION

Section 1 Bioelectrical phenomena and physiological properties of the cardiac muscle

1 Bioelectrical phenomena of the cardiac muscle

1.1 The membrane potentials of cardiac working cells

1.1.1 Resting membrane potential

1.1.2 Action potential

1.2 The membrane potentials of cardiacautorhythmic cells

1.2.1 The membrane potentials of SA node

1.2.2 The membrane potentials of Purkinjefibers

2 Physiological properties of cardiac muscle cell

2.1 Autorhythmicity

2.1.1 Heart pacemaker

2.1.2 The control of SA node for ectopic pacemaker

2.1.3 Influence factorsforautorhythmicity

2.2 Conductivity

2.2.1 Conduction pathway and feature

2.2.2 Influence factors for conductivity

2.3 Excitability

2.3.1 Cycling change of cardiac cell excitability

2.3.2 Premature contraction and compensatory pause

2.3.3 Influence factors for excitability

2.4 Contractility

2.4.1 Characteristics of contractility

2.4.2 Influence factorsforcontractility

3 Body surface electrocardiogram

3.1 The recording of ECG

3.2 Characteristics of the normal ECG

Section 2 Pumping function of heart

1 Heart rate and cardiac circle

1.1 Heart rate

1.2 Cardiac cycle

2 Cardiac pumping - ejection and filling process

2.1 Isovolumetric contraction phase

2.2 Rapid ejection phase

2.3 Slow ejection phase

2.4 Isovolumic relaxation phase

2.5 Rapid filling phase

2.6 Slow filling phase

2.7 Atrial systole

3 Evaluation of pumping function of heart

3.1 Stroke volume

3.2 Ejection fraction

3.3 Cardiac output

3.4 Cardiac index

3.5 Work output of the heart

4 Cardiac reserve

5 Factors controlling cardiac output

5.1 Preload

5.2 Afterload

5.3 Myocardial contractility

5.4 Heart rate

6 Heart sounds and Echocardiography

6.1 First heart sound

6.2 Second heart sound

6.3 Third heart sound

6.4 Fourth heart sound

6.5 Echocardiography

Section 3 Physiology of vessel

1 Functional organization of the vessel

1.1 Windkessel vessels

1.2 Resistance vessels

1.3 Exchange vessels

1.4 Shunt vessels

1.5 Capacitance vessels

2 Hemodynamics

2.1 Blood flow

2.2 Blood resistance

3 Arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse

3.1 Definition

3.2 Factors affecting arterial blood pressure

3.2.1 Stroke volume

3.2.2 Heart rate

3.2.3 Peripheral resistance

3.2.4 Ratio of circulating blood volume to vascular system capacity

3.2.5 The elastic reservoir effect of aorta

3.3 Mean arterial blood pressure

3.4 Pulse pressure

3.5 Arterial pulse

4 Venous pressure and venous return

4.1 Venous pressure

4.2 Venous return

4.2.1 Mean circulatory filling pressure

4.2.2 Myocardial contractility

4.2.3 Gravity and position

4.2.4 Thoracoabdominal pump

4.2.5 Skeletal muscle pump

5 Microcirculation

5.1 The compositions of a microcirculation unit

5.1.1 Circuitous channel

5.1.2 Thoroughfare channel

5.1.3 Arterio-venous shunt

5.2 Regulation of microcirculation

5.2.1 Local product of metabolism

5.2.2 Resistance of microcirculation

5.2.3 Neural and humoralregulation

6 Tissue fluid and lymph

6.1 Tissue fluid

6.2 Lymph

Section 4 Cardiovascular regulatory mechanism

1 Neuroregulation

1.1 Cardiac innervations

1.2 Innervations of blood vessels

1.3 Cardiovascular center

1.4 Reflex regulation of cardiovascular activity

1.4.1 Baroreceptors and baroreceptor reflex

1.4.2 Atrial stretch receptors

1.4.3 Chemoreceptor reflex initiated by the carotid and aortic bodies

2 Humoral regulation

2.1 Norepinephrine and epinephrine

2.2 Angiotensin

2.3 Vasopressin

2.4 Endothelin

2.5 Kinin

2.6 Atrial natriuretic peptide

2.7 Adrenomedullin

2.8 Histamine

3 Autoregulation

3.1 Autoregulation of local metabolites

3.2 Myogenic autoregulation

Section 5 Circulation through special regions

1 Coronary circulation

1.1 Normal coronary blood flow

1.2 Phasic changes in coronary blood flow

1.3 Control of coronary blood flow

1.3.1 Metabolic control of coronary blood flow

1.3.2 Nervous control of coronary blood flow

1.3.3 Humoral regulation

2 Pulmonary circulation

2.1 Anatomical and physiological characteristics of pulmonary circulation

2.1.1 Physiologic anatomy of the pulmonary circulation

2.1.2 Pressures in the pulmonary circulation

2.1.3 Negative pulmonary interstitial pressure

2.1.4 The blood volume of the lungs

2.2 Regulation of pulmonary circulation blood flow

2.2.1 Neural control of pulmonary vessels

2.2.2 Chemical control of pulmonary blood flow

3 Cerebral circulation

3.1 Normal rate of cerebral blood flow

3.2 Blood-cerebrospinal fluid and blood-brain barriers

3.3 Regulation of cerebral blood flow

3.3.1 Autoregulation

3.3.2 Effects of PCO2 and PO2

3.3.3 Neural control

Chapter5 RESPIRATION

Section 1 Pulmonary ventilation

1 The power of pulmonary ventilation

2 Resistance of pulmonary ventilation

2.1 Airway resistance is the most important inelastic resistance for pulmonary ventilation

2.2 Lung compliance reflects the strength of the elastic resistance

2.2.1 Surfactant is the most important determinant of lung compliance

2.2.2 Clinical significance of surfactant

3 Pulmonary volume and capacity

3.1 Pulmonary volume

3.2 Pulmonary capacity

4 Pulmonary ventilation volume

4.1 Minute ventilation volume

4.2 Dead space and its effect on alveolar ventilation

4.3 Alveolar ventilation

4.4 Rate at which alveolar air is renewed by atmospheric air

Section 2 Exchange of gases

1 Factors that affect the rate of gas diffusion

2 Diffusion of gases through the respiratory membrane

2.1 Respiratory membrane

2.2 Factors that affect the rate of gas diffusion through the respiratory membrane

2.2.1 Pressure difference

2.2.2 The thickness of the respiratory membrane

2.2.3 The surface area of the respiratory membrane

2.2.4 The ventilation-perfusion ratio

3 Gas exchange in the tissues

Section 3 Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

1 The form of breathing gas in the blood

2 Transport of O2 in the blood

2.1 Reversible binding of hemoglobin with O2

2.2 Oxygen dissociation curve

2.3 Factors that influence the oxygen transport

3 Transport of CO2 in the blood

3.1 Bicarbonate

3.2 Carbamino hemoglobin

3.3 Carbon dioxide dissociation curve

3.4 Factors that influence the carbon dioxide transport

Section 4 Regulation of respiration

1 The respiratory center and the formation of respiratory rhythm

1.1 Spinal cord

1.2 Lower brain stem

1.3 Cerebral cortex

2 Respiratory reflex regulation

2.1 Pulmonary stretch reflex

2.2 Respiratory reflex of chemical sensitivity

2.2.1 Peripheral chemoreceptorsand central chemoreceptors

2.2.2 Interaction of PCO2, H+ and PO2 in respiratory regulation

Chapter6 DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION

Section 1 General introduction

1 Physiological characteristics of gastrointestinal smooth muscle

1.1 General principles of gastrointestinal smooth muscle

1.2 Electrical activity of gastrointestinal smooth muscle

1.2.1 Resting potential

1.2.2 Basic electrical rhythm

1.2.3 The spike potentials

2 Innervation of digestive system

2.1 Intrinsic nerves

2.2 Extrinsic nerves

3 Digestive gland secretion

4 Gastrointestinal hormones

Section 2 Oral cavity digestion

1 The secretion of saliva

2 Chewing and swallowing

2.1 Chewing

2.2 Swallowing

Section 3 Stomach digestion

1 The secretion of gastric juice

1.1 Hydrochloric acid (HCl)

1.2 Pepsinogen

1.3 Mucus and gastric barrier

1.4 Intrinsic factor

2 Regulation of gastric secretion

2.1 Cephalic phases

2.2 Gastric phases

2.3 Intestinal phases

3 Gastric movement and regulation

3.1 The main forms of gastric motility

3.1.1 Receptive relaxation

3.1.2 Tense contraction

3.1.3 Gastric peristalsis

3.2 Gastric emptying

3.3 Regulation of gastric motility

3.4 Vomiting

Section 4 Small intestine digestion

1 The secretion of pancreatic juice

1.1 The nature, composition and function of pancreatic juice

1.2 Control of pancreatic secretion

2 Bile secretion and discharge

2.1 The nature, composition and function of bile

2.2 The regulation of bile secretion and discharge

3 Small intestinal secretion

4 The movement of small intestine

4.1 The movement type

4.1.1 Tonic contractions

4.1.2 Segmental motility (Mixing contractions)

4.1.3 Peristalsis (propulsive movements)

4.2 The movement regulation

4.3 The function of the ileocecal sphincter

Section 5 Colon digestion

1 The secretion of large intestine and the role of bacteria in the large intestine

2 Large intestine movement and defecation reflex

2.1 Mixing movements

2.2 Propulsive movements-‘mass movements’

2.3 Defecation reflex

Section 6 Absorption

1 Sites and ways of absorption

1.1 Sites and ways of absorption

1.2 Ways of absorption

2 Absorption of major nutrients in the small intestine

2.1 Absorption of inorganic salts

2.1.1 Sodium absorption

2.1.2 Calcium absorption

2.1.3 The absorption of iron

2.1.4 The absorption of negative ion

2.2 Absorption of sugar

2.3 Protein absorption

2.4 Fat absorption

2.5 Vitamin absorption

2.6 Water absorption

Chapter7 ENERGY METABOLISM AND BODY TEMPERATURE

Section 1 Energy metabolism

1 The source and use of body’s energy

1.1 Energy sources

1.2 Transformation and utilization of body’s energy

1.3 Energy metabolism measurement

1.3.1 Some concepts in energy metabolism measurement

1.3.2 Principle and method of measuring the energy metabolism

2 The main factors affecting energy metabolism

2.1 Muscle activity

2.2 Spiritual activities

2.3 Specific dynamic action of food

2.4 Environmental temperature

3 Basal metabolism

3.1 Concept of basal metabolism

3.2 Measurement and change of basal metabolism rate

Section 2 Body temperature

1 The normal body temperature and physiological changes

1.1 Concept of body temperature and its normal value

1.2 Normal body temperature variation

1.2.1 Circadian rhythm of body temperature

1.2.2 The influence of gender

1.2.3 The influence of age

1.2.4 Physical activity and other factors

2 Heat production and heat loss

2.1 Heat production

2.1.1 The main heat producing organs

2.1.2 Heat production way

2.1.3 Regulation of heat production

2.2 Heat loss

2.2.1 The part of losing heat

2.2.2 Heat loss way

2.2.3 Regulation of heat loss

3 Regulation of body temperature

3.1 Autonomic thermoregulation

3.1.1 Thermal receptor

3.1.2 Body temperature regulation center

3.1.3 Temperature set point theory

3.2 Behavioral thermoregulation

Chapter8 FORMATION AND DISCHARGE OF URINE

Section 1 Functional anatomy and blood circulation of the kidney

1 Function structure of the kidney

1.1 Nephron

1.2 Juxtaglomerular apparatus

2 The renal blood flow

2.1 Characteristics of renal blood flow

2.2 Regulation of renal blood flow

3 Innervation and function of the kidney

Section 2 Glomerular filtration

1 The glomerular filtration rate and the filtration fraction

2 The filtration membrane

3 Dynamics of glomerular filtration

4 Factors influencing the glomerular filtration

Section 3 Renal tubule and collecting tube reabsorption and secretion

1 Characteristics of the renal tubule and collecting duct reabsorption

1.1 Tubular reabsorption is quantitatively large

1.2 Tubular reabsorption is highly selective

2 Ways and means of the renal tubule and collecting duct reabsorption

2.1 Ways of the renal tubule and collecting duct reabsorption

2.2 Means of the renal tubule and collecting duct reabsorption

3 Reabsorption of several major substances

3.1 Tubular transport in the proximal tubule

3.1.1 Sodium reabsorption

3.1.2 Chloride reabsorption

3.1.3 Glucose and amino acidreabsorption

3.1.4 Bicarbonate reabsorption

3.1.5 Potassium reabsorption

3.1.6 Other substances reabsorption

3.2 Tubular transport in the loop of Henle

3.3 Tubular transport in the distal tubule and collecting duct

3.3.1 Transport in the early distal tubule

3.3.2 Transport in the posterior distal tubule and collecting duct

4 Secretion function of renal tubule and collecting duct

4.1 Hydrogen ions

4.2 Ammonia

4.3 Potassium

Section 4 Regulation of renal tubule and collecting duct

1 Autoregulation

1.1 Osmotic diuresis

1.2 Glomerulotubular balance

2 Humoral regulation

2.1 Antidiuretic hormone

2.1.1 Crystal osmotic pressure

2.1.2 Blood volume

2.2 Aldosterone

2.2.1 RAAS

2.2.2 Plasma concentrations of K+ and Na+

3 Neuroregulation

Section 5 Concentration and dilution of urine

1 Formation mechanism of osmotic gradient in the renal medullary

1.1 The formation of osmotic gradient in outer of the medulla

1.2 The formation of osmotic gradient in inner of the medulla

1.3 Countercurrent exchange mechanism in the vasa recta

2 The basic process of urine concentration and dilution

Section 6 Urine discharge

1 Innervation of bladder and urethra

2 Micturition reflex

Chapter9 ENDOCRINOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY

Section 1 Introduction

1 Chemical classification

2 The way of hormone action

3 Physiological functions and characteristics

3.1 Physiological functions of hormones

3.2 Characteristics of hormones

4 Mechanism of hormones

4.1 The second messenger hypothesis

4.2 The genetic expression hypothesis

Section 2 Hypothalamus and pituitary hormones

1 Hypothalamic-neurohypophysis system

1.1 Antidiuretic hormone

1.2 Oxytocin

2 Hypothalamic-adenohypophysissystem

2.1 Hypothalamic regulatory peptides

2.2 Anterior pituitary hormones

2.2.1 Growth hormone

2.2.2 Prolactin

2.2.3 Melanophore stimulating hormone

Section 3 Thyroid Hormones

1 Synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones

1.1 Synthesis of thyroid hormones

1.1.1 Iodide trapping of follicular cells

1.1.2 Oxidation of the iodide ion

1.1.3 Iodination of tyrosine

1.1.4 Coupling

1.2 Metabolism of thyroid hormones

1.2.1 Secretion

1.2.2 Transportation

1.2.3 Elimination

2 Physiological functions of the thyroid hormones

2.1 Physiological functions

2.1.1 Calorigenic action

2.1.2 Effects of substance metabolism

2.1.3 Effects on growth

2.1.4 Effects on the nervous system

2.1.5 Effects on the cardiovascular system

3 Control of thyroid hormone secretion

3.1 Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis

3.1.1 Control by TSH

3.1.2 Negative effect of thyroid hormone on TSH

3.2 Autoregulation

3.3 Automatic nervous system

Section 4 Hormones regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism

1 Parathyroid hormone

1.1 Physiological functions of Parathyroid hormone

1.1.1 Actions on the bone

1.1.2 Actions on the kidneys

1.1.3 Actions on the gut

1.2 Regulation of PTH

2 Calcitonin

2.1 Physiological functions of calcitonin

2.2 Regulation of calcitonin

3 Vitamin D3

3.1 Physiological functions of vitamin D

3.2 Regulation of vitamin D

Section 5 Hormones secreted by the adrenal gland

1 Adrenocortical hormones

1.1 Physiological functions of glucocorticoid

1.1.1 Effect of glucocorticoid on carbohydrate metabolism

1.1.2 Effect of glucocorticoid on protein metabolism

1.1.3 Effect of glucocorticoid on fat

1.1.4 Effect of glucocorticoid on water metabolism

1.1.5 Resistance to stress

1.1.6 Effects on blood cells

1.1.7 Effect on cardiovascular system

1.1.8 Other effects

1.2 Regulation of glucocorticoid secretion

2 Adrenal medulla hormones

2.1 Actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline

2.2 Control of adrenomedullary secretion

Section 6 Insulin and glucagon

1 Insulin

1.1 Action mechanism of insulin

1.2 Physiological functions of insulin

1.2.1 Effect of insulin on carbohydrate metabolism

1.2.2 Effect of insulin on proteins metabolism

1.2.3 Effect of insulin on fat metabolism

1.3 Regulation of insulin release

1.3.1 Plasma glucose

1.3.2 Amino acids and fatty acids

1.3.3 Other hormones

2 Glucagon

2.1 Actions of glucagon

2.2 Release of glucagon

Section 7 Other hormones

1 Prostaglandin

2 Melatonin

3 Leptin

Chapter10 REPRODUCTION

Section 1 Male reproduction

1 Function of testis

1.1 Spermatogenesis

1.2 Secreting testosterone and inhibin

1.2.1 Testosterone

1.2.2 Inhibin

2 Hormonal control of male reproduction

Section 2 Female reproduction

1 Functions of ovary

1.1 Oogenesis

1.2 Endocrine functions

1.2.1 Estrogen

1.2.2 Progesterone

2 Menstrual cycleand the hormonal control

2.1 Ovarian cycle

2.1.1 Follicular phase

2.1.2 Ovulation

2.1.3 Luteal phase

2.2 Uterine cycle

2.2.1 Menstrual phase

2.2.2 Proliferative phase

2.2.3 Secretory phase

2.3 Hormonal control

Section 3 Pregnancy and parturition

1 Pregnancy

1.1 Fertilization

1.2 Implantation

1.3 Placental hormones

1.3.1 Human chorionic gonadotropin

1.3.2 Human chorionic somatomammotropin

1.3.3 Progesterone and estrogen

2 Parturition

Section 4 Sex physiology

1 Sex maturation

2 Sexual action

2.1 Sexual action of male

2.2 Sexual action of female

Chapter11 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Section 1 Basic structure and functions of the nervous system

1 Neuron and nerve fibers

1.1 Neuron

1.2 Classification of nerve fibers

1.3 Characteristics of nerve fibers conducting impulse

1.4 Conduction velocity of nerve fibers

1.5 Axon transport of nerve fibers

2 Neurogliocytes

Section 2 Synaptic transmission

1 Synaptic structure and classification

2 Directional synaptic transmission

2.1 Presynaptic process

2.2 Postsynaptic processes

2.2.1 Excitatory postsynaptic potential

2.2.2 Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

3 Neuromuscular junction

4 Electrical synapse

5 Neurotransmitter and receptor

5.1 Neurotransmitter

5.2 Receptor

5.3 Major neurotransmitter and receptor system

5.3.1 Acetylcholine and its receptor

5.3.2 Adrenergic and its receptor

5.3.3 Biogenic Amines

Section 3 General principles for activities of center

1 Reflex center

2 Contact ways of central neurons

3 Characteristics of excitatory transmission in reflex center

4 Central inhibition

4.1 Postsynaptic inhibition

4.1.1 Afferent collateral inhibition

4.1.2 Recurrent inhibition

4.2 presynaptic inhibition

Section 4 Sensation functions of the nervous system

1 Neural pathways in sensory systems

1.1 Sensory conduction function of spinal cord

1.1.1 Superficial sensory conduction

1.1.2 Deep sensory conduction

1.2 The thalamus and its sensory projection system

1.2.1 Specific projection system

1.2.2 Nonspecific projection system

1.3 Sensory function of cerebral cortex

1.3.1 Somatic sensory area

1.3.2 Proprioception

1.3.3 Visceral sensation

1.3.4 Special feeling

2 Pain

2.1 Skin pain

2.1.1 Features of cutaneous pain

2.1.2 Afferent pathway of skin pain

2.2 Visceral pain and referred pain

2.2.1 Visceral pain

2.2.2 Referred pain

Section 5 Somatic motor function of the nervous system

1 Regulation of spinal cord on somatic motor function

1.1 Spinal motor neurons

1.1.1 Alpha motor neurons

1.1.2 Gamma motor neurons

1.1.3 Beta motor neurons

1.2 Spinal reflex

1.2.1 Muscle stretch reflex

1.2.2 Flexion reflex and crossed extensor reflex

1.3 Spinal shock

2 Regulation of brain stem on muscle tension

2.1 The facilitation and inhibition zone in brain stem reticular

2.1.1 Facilitation area and its effects

2.1.2 Inhibition area and its effects

2.2 Decerebrate rigidity

3 Regulation of cerebellum on somatic motor function

3.1 The vestibulo cerebellum – Balance

3.2 Spinocerebellum - regulating muscle tonus and coordination of voluntary movement

3.3 Cerebellar cortex - involved in the design of voluntary movement

4 Regulation of basal ganglia on somatic motor function

4.1 The composition of the basal ganglia and nerve contacts

4.2 Function of basal ganglia

5 Regulation of the cerebral cortex on somatic motor function

5.1 Cortical motor area

5.1.1 The main sports area

5.1.2 Supplementary motor area

5.1.3 The second movement zone

5.2 The motor pathway

5.2.1 Pyramidal system and its functions

5.2.2 Extrapyramidal system and its functions

Section 6 Visceral activity regulation by nervous system

1 Characteristics of autonomic nervous system

2 Central function of autonomic nervous system

2.1 Visceral activity regulation by spinal cord

2.2 Visceral activity regulation by lower brain stem

2.3 Visceral activity regulation by hypothalamus

2.3.1 Regulation of visceral activity

2.3.2 The regulation of feeding behavior

2.3.3 The regulation of water balance

2.3.4 Involved in emotional response regulation

2.3.5 Control of biological rhythms

2.4 Visceral activity regulation by cortical

2.4.1 Neocortex

2.4.2 The limbic system

Section 7 Advanced features in brain and electrical activity

1 Bioelectrical activities of cortex

1.1 Normal EEG waveform

1.2 The formation mechanism of brain waves

1.3 Cortical evoked potential

2 Wakefulness and sleep

2.1 Maintenance of wakefulness

2.2 Sleep

2.2.1 Slow wave sleep

2.2.2 Fast wave sleep(REM sleep)

3 Learning and memory

3.1 Learning form

3.2 The basic law of conditioned reflex activity

3.2.1 The establishment of conditioned reflex

3.2.2 Generalization, differentiation and extinction of conditioned reflex

3.3 The two-signal systems

3.3.1 The first signal system

3.3.2 The second signal system

3.4 The process of memory

3.4.1 Short term memory

3.4.2 Long term memory

3.5 Loss of memory

4 The language center of the cerebral cortex and lateral dominance

4.1 Correlation of the cortical function

4.2 The language center of the cerebral cortex

4.3 One side advantage of cerebral cortex function

Chapter12 SENSATION

Section 1 Introduction

1 Receptors and sensory organs

2 General physiological characteristics of the receptor

2.1 Adequate Stimulus

2.2 Transduction

2.3 Sensory coding

2.4 Stimulus adaptation

Section 2 Vision

1 Refractive function of eye

1.1 Refractive imaging of the eye

1.2 Reduced eye

1.3 Regulation of ocular refractive function

1.3.1 Regulation of lens

1.3.2 Pupillary accommodation

1.3.3 Convergence

1.4 Abnormal refractive power

2 Retinal photoreceptor function

2.1 Structure of retina and photoreceptor cells

2.2 Photochemistry and photo transduction of vision

2.2.1 The photoreceptor transducing action of rod cells

2.2.2 The photoreceptor transducing action of cone cells

2.2.3 The photosensitive transducing effect of photoreceptor cells

3 Some visual phenomena

3.1 Dark adaptation and light adaptation

3.2 Binocular vision and stereopsis

3.3 Visual acuity

3.4 Fields of vision (or Visual field)

Section 3 Hearing

1 The human ear threshold

2 External and middle ear

2.1 External ear

2.2 Middle ear

3 Inner ear

3.1 Structure of cochlea

3.2 Phonosensitivetransduction in cochlea

3.2.1 Vibration of basilar membrane

3.2.2 Bioelectric phenomena in the cochlea

Section 4 Vestibular sensation

1 Device and appropriate stimulation of the vestibular organs

1.1 Semicircular canals

1.2 Saccule and utricle

2 Vestibular response and nystagmus

Section 5 Taste and smell

1 Taste

2 Smell

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