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Phytomedicines, Herbal Drugs, and Poisons电子书

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作       者:Ben-Erik van Wyk and Michael Wink

出  版  社:University of Chicago Press

出版时间:2015-06-22

字       数:126.0万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 法律/政治/宗教

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Plants have been used to treat disease throughout human history. On a clay slab that dates back approximately five thousand years, the Sumerians recorded medicinal recipes that made use of hundreds of plants, including poppy, henbane, and mandrake. During the Middle Ages, monks commonly grew and prescribed plants such as sage, anise, and mint in their monasteries. And as the market for herbal remedies and natural medicine grows, we continue to search the globe for plants and plant compounds to combat our various ailments.?In Phytomedicines, Herbal Drugs, and Poisons, Ben-Erik van Wyk offers a richly illustrated, scientific guide to medicinal and poisonous plants, including those used for their mind-altering effects. Van Wyk covers approximately 350 species-from Aloe vera and Ephedra sinica to Cannabis sativa and Coffea arabica-detailing their botanical, geographical, pharmacological, and toxicological data as well as the chemical structures of the active compounds in each. Readers learn, for example, that Acacia senegal, or gum acacia, is used primarily in Sudan and Ethiopia as a topical ointment to protect the skin and mucosa from bacterial and fungal infections, and that Aconitum napellus, more commonly known as aconite, is used in cough syrups but can be psychedelic when smoked or absorbed through the skin. With 350 full-color photographs featuring the plants and some of their derivative products, Phytomedicines, Herbal Drugs, and Poisons will be an invaluable reference not only for those in the health care field but also for those growing their own medicinal herb gardens, as well as anyone who needs a quick answer to whether a plant is a panacea or a poison.
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Title page

Imprint page

Contents

Preface

Introduction

Traditional systems of medicine

Phytomedicines

Functional foods and nutraceuticals

Plant-derived chemical compounds

Mind-altering drugs and stimulants

Plant poisons

Plant parts used

Dosage forms

Methods and routes of administration

Extraction and analysis of compounds

Quality control and safety

Efficacy of herbal medicine

Pharmacological and toxic effects

Regulation and legal aspects

Secondary metabolites

Terpenes

Phenolics

Quinones

Polyacetylenes, polyenes, alkamides

Carbohydrates

Organic acids

Alkaloids

Amino acids and related compounds

Format of species monographs, with abbreviations and conventions used

Abrus precatorius

Acacia senegal

Achillea millefolium

Aconitum napellus

Acorus calamus

Adansonia digitata

Adenium obesum

Adonis vernalis

Aesculus hippocastanum

Aframomum melegueta

Agathosma betulina

Agrimonia eupatoria

Agrostemma githago

Alchemilla xanthochlora

Aleurites fordii

Allium cepa

Allium sativum

Allium ursinum

Aloe ferox

Aloe vera

Aloysia citrodora

Alpinia officinarum

Althaea officinalis

Ammi majus

Anadenanthera peregrina

Ananas comosus

Andrographis paniculata

Anethum graveolens

Angelica archangelica

Angelica sinensis

Apium graveolens

Aralia racemosa

Arctium lappa

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Areca catechu

Argemone ochroleuca

Aristolochia clematitis

Armoracia rusticana

Arnica montana

Aronia melanocarpa

Artemisia absinthium

Artemisia afra

Artemisia annua

Arum maculatum

Ascophyllum nodosum

Aspalathus linearis

Asparagus officinalis

Astragalus membranaceus

Atropa belladonna

Avena sativa

Azadirachta indica

Bacopa monnierii

Ballota nigra

Banisteriopsis caapi

Berberis vulgaris

Betula pendula

Blighia sapida

Boophone disticha

Borago officinalis

Boswellia sacra

Brugmansia suaveolens

Bulbine frutescens

Cajanus cajan

Calendula officinalis

Callilepis laureola

Camellia sinensis

Camptotheca acuminata

Canella winterana

Cannabis sativa

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Capsicum frutescens

Carica papaya

Carthamus tinctorius

Carum carvi

Catha edulis

Catharanthus roseus

Centaurea benedicta

Centaurea cyanus

Centaurium erythraea

Centella asiatica

Ceratonia siliqua

Cerbera odollam

Cetraria islandica

Chamaemelum nobile

Chelidonium majus

Chenopodium ambrosioides

Chondrodendron tomentosum

Chondrus crispus

Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium

Chrysanthemum ×morifolium

Cichorium intybus

Cicuta virosa

Cimicifuga racemosa

Cinchona pubescens

Cinnamomum camphora

Cinnamomum verum

Citrullus colocynthis

Citrus aurantium

Coffea arabica

Cola acuminata

Colchicum autumnale

Commiphora myrrha

Conium maculatum

Convallaria majalis

Coptis chinensis

Coriandrum sativum

Crataegus monogyna

Crocus sativus

Croton tiglium

Cucurbita pepo

Curcuma longa

Cyamopsis tetragonolobus

Cyclopia genistoides

Cymbopogon citratus

Cynara cardunculus

Cytisus scoparius

Daphne mezereum

Datura stramonium

Daucus carota

Derris elliptica

Dichapetalum cymosum

Dictamnus albus

Dieffenbachia seguine

Digitalis lanata

Dioscorea villosa

Drimia maritima

Drosera rotundifolia

Drosera rotundifolia

Duboisia myoporoides

Ecballium elaterium

Echinacea pallida

Echinacea purpurea

Elettaria cardamomum

Eleutherococcus senticosus

Elymus repens

Ephedra sinica

Equisetum arvense

Erythroxylum coca

Eucalyptus globulus

Eucommia ulmoides

Euonymus europaeus

Euphorbia peplus

Euterpe oleracea

Fabiana imbricata

Fagopyrum esculentum

Ferula assa-foetida

Filipendula ulmaria

Foeniculum vulgare

Fragaria vesca

Fraxinus excelsior

Fumaria officinalis

Galanthus nivalis

Galeopsis segetum

Gaultheria procumbens

Gelsemium sempervirens

Gentiana lutea

Ginkgo biloba

Gloriosa superba

Glycine max

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Griffonia simplicifolia

Grindelia squarrosa

Guaiacum officinale

Gypsophila paniculata

Hamamelis virginiana

Harpagophytum procumbens

Harungana madagascariensis

Hedera helix

Helichrysum arenarium

Heliotropium arborescens

Helleborus viridis

Herniaria glabra

Hibiscus sabdariffa

Hippophae rhamnoides

Hoodia gordonii

Hordeum vulgare

Hovenia dulcis

Humulus lupulus

Hydrastis canadensis

Hyoscyamus niger

Hypericum perforatum

Hypoxis hemerocallidea

Ilex paraguariensis

Illicium anisatum

Illicium verum

Inula helenium

Ipomoea tricolor

Jatropha curcas

Juglans regia

Juniperus communis

Juniperus sabina

Justicia adhatoda

Kigelia africana

Krameria lappacea

Laburnum anagyroides

Lamium album

Lathyrus sativus

Lavandula angustifolia

Lawsonia inermis

Leonurus cardiaca

Lepidium sativum

Lessertia frutescens

Levisticum officinale

Linum usitatissimum

Lobelia inflata

Lophophora williamsii

Lycium chinense

Lycopersicon esculentum

Lycopodium clavatum

Lycopus europaeus

Mahonia aquifolium

Malva sylvestris

Mandragora officinarum

Marrubium vulgare

Matricaria chamomilla

Medicago sativa

Melaleuca alternifolia

Melilotus officinalis

Melissa officinalis

Mentha ×piperita

Menyanthes trifoliata

Mondia whitei

Morinda citrifolia

Moringa oleifera

Myristica fragrans

Myroxylon balsamum

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Nelumbo nucifera

Nerium oleander

Nicotiana glauca

Nicotiana tabacum

Nigella sativa

Ocimum tenuiflorum

Oenothera biennis

Olea europaea

Ononis spinosa

Origanum vulgare

Orthosiphon aristatus

Paeonia lactiflora

Panax ginseng

Papaver somniferum

Passiflora incarnata

Paullinia cupana

Pausinystalia johimbe

Peganum harmala

Pelargonium sidoides

Petasites hybridus

Petroselinum crispum

Peumus boldus

Phaseolus vulgaris

Phellodendron amurense

Phyllanthus emblica

Physostigma venenosum

Pilocarpus jaborandi

Pimpinella anisum

Pimpinella major

Pinus sylvestris

Piper methysticum

Plantago afra

Plantago lanceolata

Platycodon grandiflorus

Podophyllum peltatum

Pogostemon cablin

Polygala senega

Polygonum aviculare

Populus tremuloides

Potentilla anserina

Potentilla erecta

Primula veris

Prunus africana

Prunus dulcis

Prunus laurocerasus

Prunus spinosa

Psidium guajava

Psychotria ipecacuanha

Pteridium aquilinum

Pueraria lobata

Punica granatum

Quassia amara

Quercus robur

Rauvolfia serpentina

Rhamnus catharticus

Rhamnus frangula

Rhamnus purshianus

Rheum palmatum

Rhodiola rosea

Rhus toxicodendron

Ribes nigrum

Ricinus communis

Rosa canina

Rosmarinus officinalis

Rubus fruticosus

Ruscus aculeatus

Ruta graveolens

Salix alba

Salvadora persica

Salvia divinorum

Salvia officinalis

Sambucus nigra

Sanguinaria canadensis

Sanguisorba officinalis

Sanicula europaea

Santalum album

Saponaria officinalis

Sceletium tortuosum

Schinus molle

Schisandra chinensis

Scopolia carniolica

Scutellaria baicalensis

Securidaca longepedunculata

Senecio jacobaea

Senna alexandrina

Serenoa repens

Sesamum indicum

Silybum marianum

Solanum dulcamara

Solanum nigrum

Solidago virgaurea

Spilanthes acmella

Stevia rebaudiana

Strophanthus gratus

Strychnos nux-vomica

Styphnolobium japonicum

Symphytum officinale

Synsepalum dulcificum

Syzygium aromaticum

Tagetes minuta

Tamarindus indica

Tanacetum parthenium

Taraxacum officinale

Taxus baccata

Terminalia chebula

Theobroma cacao

Thevetia peruviana

Thuja occidentalis

Thymus vulgaris

Tilia cordata

Trifolium pratense

Trigonella foenum-graecum

Tropaeolum majus

Turnera diffusa

Tussilago farfara

Uncaria tomentosa

Urtica dioica

Vaccinium macrocarpon

Vaccinium myrtillus

Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Valeriana officinalis

Vanilla planifolia

Veratrum album

Verbascum phlomoides

Verbena officinalis

Vinca minor

Viola tricolor

Viscum album

Visnaga daucoides

Vitex agnus-castus

Vitis vinifera

Warburgia salutaris

Withania somnifera

Xysmalobium undulatum

Zingiber officinale

Ziziphus jujuba

Glossary of botanical, chemical, medical, pharmacological and toxicological terms

Further reading

Acknowledgements

Index

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

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