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Bird Atlas 2007-11电子书

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作       者:Dawn Balmer,Simon Gillings,Brian Caffrey

出  版  社:William Collins

出版时间:2014-08-14

字       数:139.5万

所属分类: 进口书 > 外文原版书 > 法律/政治/宗教

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Bird Atlas 2007-2011 is the definitive statement on breeding and winter bird distributions in Britain and Ireland. It builds on previous atlases (1968-1972 Breeding Atlas, 1981-1984 Winter Atlas, 1988-1991 Breeding Atlas) to show how the fortunes of the birds of Britain and Ireland have changed over the last 40 years. Bird Atlas 2007-2011 presents over 1300 detailed maps for nearly 300 species, showing where each breeds and winters, where they are most and least abundant and where status is changing. The species accounts and chapters bring together the latest scientific findings to explain these patterns and highlight the major issues facing our changing bird faunas.
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COPYRIGHT

CONTENTS

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CHAPTER 1 SETTING THE SCENE

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE

1.3 WHY ANOTHER ATLAS?

1.3.1 Research uses of atlas data

1.4 ORGANISING BIRD ATLAS 2007–11

1.4.1 Overview groups

1.4.2 National and regional organisation

1.4.3 Training for Regional Organisers, Validators and observers

1.4.4 Bird Clubs and local tetrad atlases

1.4.5 Use of the Internet for data capture and volunteer engagement

1.4.6 Contracted fieldworkers and expeditions

Contracted fieldworkers

Expeditions

1.4.7 Publicity, promotion and resources

1.4.8 Validation of records

1.5 AVAILABILITY OF THE ATLAS DATA

1.6 POPULATION ESTIMATES

1.7 LESSONS LEARNT AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE

1.7.1 Planning well ahead

1.7.2 Field methods

1.7.3 Data sources and analysis

1.8 USING THIS BOOK

CHAPTER 2 SURVEY METHODS AND DATA SOURCES

2.1 TWO COMPLEMENTARY FIELDWORK COMPONENTS

2.2 FIELD METHODS

2.2.1 Grid references and defining tetrads

2.2.2 Recording periods

2.2.3 Building species lists ~ ‘Roving Records’

2.2.4 Standardised measures of detection and abundance ~ ‘Timed Tetrad Visits’

How many tetrads to survey?

Visit timing and duration

What to count?

Counts of colonial species at colonies

How many birds were really present? ~ ‘Tetrad Population Estimates’

2.2.5 Breeding evidence

2.3 TREATMENT OF SENSITIVE RECORDS

2.4 OTHER DATA SOURCES

2.4.1 Survey and scheme datasets from BTO and BirdWatch Ireland

BirdTrack (Britain & Ireland; BTO, RSPB, BirdWatch Ireland, SOC, WOS)

BTO Nest Record Scheme (NRS, Britain & Ireland; BTO, JNCC)

Ringing Scheme (Britain & Ireland; BTO, JNCC, NPWS)

BTO Heronries Census (UK; BTO)

Breeding Bird Survey (BBS, UK; BTO, JNCC, RSPB)

Countryside Bird Survey (CBS, Republic of Ireland; BirdWatch Ireland, NPWS)

Wetland Bird Survey (WeBS, UK; BTO, RSPB, JNCC, in association with WWT)

Irish Wetland Bird Survey (I-WeBS, Republic of Ireland; BirdWatch Ireland, NPWS)

BTO Garden BirdWatch (GBW, UK; BTO)

Garden Bird Survey (GBS, Republic of Ireland; BirdWatch Ireland)

Special surveys and datasets organised by BirdWatch Ireland

2.4.2 External data sources

County and regional clubs and reports (Britain & Ireland)

JNCC Seabird Monitoring Programme (Britain & Ireland)

RSPB (UK)

National Parks & Wildlife Service (NPWS, Republic of Ireland)

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, Republic of Ireland)

Rare Breeding Birds Panel (RBBP, UK)

Irish Rare Breeding Birds Panel (IRBBP, Ireland)

Scottish Raptor Monitoring Scheme (SRMS, Scotland)

Northern Ireland Raptor Study Group (NIRSG, Northern Ireland)

Irish Raptor Study Group (IRSG, Republic of Ireland)

Golden Eagle Trust (Republic of Ireland)

Barn Owl Trust (Britain)

BirdGuides (Britain & Ireland)

IrishBirding.com (Ireland)

Bat Conservation Ireland (Republic of Ireland)

Bord na Móna (Republic of Ireland)

CHAPTER 3 ONLINE DATA CAPTURE AND ENGAGEMENT

3.1 WHY PROVIDE AN ONLINE SURVEY?

3.2 ONLINE DEVELOPMENT TIMINGS

3.3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

3.4 CORE DATABASE TABLES

3.5 THE INTERACTIVE BIRD ATLAS ONLINE SYSTEM

3.5.1 Registration

3.5.2 Data Home

3.6 OPTIONS FOR OBSERVERS

3.6.1 Administration ~ requesting tetrads, contacting Regional Organisers

3.6.2 Submitting data

Roving Records ~ direct data entry

Roving Records ~ bulk upload

Timed Tetrad Visit ~ direct data entry

Data Entry Threshold Validation

3.6.3 Viewing and editing records

3.6.4 Dynamic personalised feedback

Personal Results as part of the Local Effort

Promoting Recording in Other Areas

Identifying Gaps and Priority Areas

3.7 OPTIONS FOR REGIONAL ORGANISERS AND VALIDATORS

3.7.1 Management of TTV coverage

3.7.2 Reviewing and Validation of records

Auto-validation

3.8 NIGHTLY FEEDBACK OF RESULTS

3.9 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED AND LESSONS LEARNT

Hardware and Software

Observer Management

Data Entry

Local Atlases

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND MAP PRODUCTION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.1.1 False absences and the interpretation of gaps and changes

4.1.2 Previous atlas data

1968–72 Breeding Atlas

1981–84 Winter Atlas

1988–91 Breeding Atlas

4.1.3 Safeguarding sensitive species

4.1.4 Revised TTV targets for analyses

4.2 DISTRIBUTION MAPPING

4.2.1 Winter distributions

4.2.2 Breeding distributions

Records lacking breeding evidence

4.2.3 Distribution maps for sensitive species

4.2.4 Species issues associated with distribution mapping

4.3 DISTRIBUTION CHANGE MAPPING

4.3.1 Winter distribution change

4.3.2 Breeding distribution change

4.3.3 Distribution change for sensitive species

4.3.4 Species issues associated with change mapping

4.4 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE MAPPING

4.4.1 Simple mean abundance maps at 20-km resolution

Which species and seasons?

4.4.2 Smoothed maps for coastal species at tetrad resolution

Which species and seasons?

4.4.3 Modelled abundance maps at tetrad resolution

Cross-validation and model structure

Variables to explain bird relative abundance

Which species and seasons?

4.5 BREEDING-SEASON RELATIVE ABUNDANCE CHANGE

4.6 STATISTICS OF RANGE SIZE AND CHANGE

4.7 MAP PRODUCTION

4.7.1 Distribution maps

4.7.2 Distribution change maps

4.7.3 Relative abundance maps

4.7.4 Relative abundance change maps

CHAPTER 5 COVERAGE & EFFORT

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 NUMBERS, DISTRIBUTION AND ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF VOLUNTEER OBSERVERS

5.2.1 Where did observers live?

5.2.2 Where did observers undertake fieldwork?

5.2.3 Patterns in observer behaviour

5.3 COVERAGE FOR DISTRIBUTION MAPPING

5.3.1 Spread of visits to 10-km squares across seasons

5.3.2 Effectiveness of coverage

5.3.3 Provision of breeding evidence

5.3.4 Contribution of different data sources to distribution maps

5.3.5 Impact of the chequerboard on species numbers in Ireland

5.3.6 Recording of nocturnal species

5.4 SYSTEMATIC COVERAGE OF TETRADS BY TTVS

5.4.1 Numbers of surveyed tetrads and completed TTVs

5.4.2 Were sufficient tetrads surveyed in all regions?

5.4.3 Counts of colonial species

5.4.4 Tetrad Population Estimates

5.5 COVERAGE FOR CHANGE MAPPING

5.6 DID RECORDING EFFORT VARY ACROSS BRITAIN & IRELAND AND AMONG ATLASES?

5.6.1 Estimating patterns of recording effort in different atlases

5.6.2 Did effort vary sufficiently to affect distribution change statistics?

5.7 CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 6 PATTERN AND CHANGE IN THE BRITISH AND IRISH AVIFAUNAS OVER A 40-YEAR PERIOD

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 APPROACH

6.3 THE SPECIES POOL

6.4 RANGE SIZE AND ABUNDANCE PATTERNS

6.5 CHANGES IN RANGE SIZE AT THE SPECIES LEVEL

6.5.1 Range expansions and contractions: the winners and losers

6.5.2 Changes in range size of non-native species

6.6 RANGE AND ABUNDANCE CHANGES ANALYSED BY SPECIES GROUPS

6.6.1 Main messages for species grouped by habitat type

6.6.2 Possible drivers of patterns for species grouped by habitat type

6.6.3 Patterns for selected non-passerine species groups

6.6.4 Migrants and residents

6.7 RANGE SIZE RELATIONSHIPS

6.8 SPATIAL ASPECTS OF RANGE CHANGE

6.8.1 Broad patterns of range change

6.8.2 Changes at range margins

6.8.3 Broad patterns of abundance change

6.9 GENERAL DISCUSSION

6.9.1 Range dynamics ~ the patterns

6.9.2 Range dynamics ~ possible drivers

6.9.3 Conservation implications

CHAPTER 7 INTERPRETATION OF SPECIES ACCOUNTS

7.1 SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE BOOK

7.2 SPECIES ACCOUNTS

7.2.1 Text

7.2.2 Distribution maps and tables

Interpretation points for distribution maps

7.2.3 Distribution change maps and tables

Interpretation points for change maps

7.2.4 Relative abundance maps

Interpretation points for relative abundance maps

7.2.5 Relative abundance change maps

Interpretation points for relative abundance change maps

7.3 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

APPENDIX 1 ~ OBSERVERS

APPENDIX 2 ~ SUMMARY STATISTICS

APPENDIX 3 ~ SURVEY INSTRUCTIONS AND FORMS

A Introduction to Bird Atlas 2007–11

B Roving Records form

C Timed Tetrad Visit instructions

D Timed Tetrad Visit form for winter

E Timed Tetrad Visit form for the breeding season

APPENDIX 4 ~ OUT-OF-SEASON BREEDING EVIDENCE USED IN CALCULATION OF SPECIES’ RANGES

APPENDIX 5 ~ SCIENTIFIC NAMES

A PLANTS

B Animals

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS COMMONLY USED IN THE TEXT

STANDARD REFERENCES

Searchable Terms

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

ABOUT THE PUBLISHER

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