Finding the Lost Year
This book would not have been written without the advice and generous kindness of friends, colleagues, and those who were once strangers. Because the research for this book began over thirteen years ago, citing each individual who helped me along the way is impossible, but to each of you I am grateful. For the many Lost Year participants who granted me interviews, thank you for allowing me to tell your story. For all those at the University of Arkansas Special Collections, the University of Central Arkansas Archives, and the University of Arkansas at Little Rock Archives, I am appreciative of your responses to my many requests for help. A number of institutions provided funding for the research for this book, as well as the research and production of the sixty-minute documentary entitled The Lost Year: the Arkansas Council for the Humanities, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Fred Darragh Foundation, and the President's Fund at the University of Central Arkansas. Funding for the Web site www.thelostyear.com came from the Bridge Fund at the Arkansas Community Foundation.
Listing the credits for this book must begin with Nancy Gately, for it was she, shortly before her death in 2010, who recognized that Leland Duvall’s wartime letters had both literary and historical value. It came about this way: At lunch with other residents at the retirement home, Nancy heard her new neighbor, Letty Duvall, say that her daughter had discovered the love letters to Letty from her future husband while cleaning out the garage and that she was having fun rereading them after sixtyfive years. Nancy asked if she could read a few and, having done so, insisted that they be made into a book. Letty was sure that Leland would have been mortified at the thought of thousands of people pawing around in his thoughts, but she agreed that Nancy should ask my advice. My idea, naturally, was that the letters deserved to be published and that, while he probably would not have cared one way or the other, Leland might have found some satisfaction in having them published since he had taken great pleasure in writing every one of them. Letty consented.
For the Many or the Few
I happen to have spent most of my life in states where citizens have the right to propose and pass laws withoutthe consent of their elected representatives. Most Americans are in the same boat; about 70 percent of us live in a city or state where this option—called the “initiative process”—is available. The polls say people like having this right, and most would even add it to the U.S. Constitution if they could. Yet there has always been an undercurrent of concern about the initiative process, especially about the role of money. Money can place a measure, virtually any measure it seems, on the ballot, and money provides access to the costly media where issues are debated.
Secret Trust of Aspasia Cruvellier Mirault
Throughout the seven-year journey of researching and writing this book, I have been the fortunate beneficiary of much guidance, support, and encouragement．Institutional support came in the way of a year-long sabbatical from my teaching and administrative duties at Clark Atlanta University．That sabbatical period, occurring early in the life of this project, gave me the time to conceptualize my ideas about Aspasia Mirault and her nineteenth-century world and to construct a first draft of the manu*．I am grateful also for two awards received in my current role as a faculty member at Huston-Tillotson University．A Sam Taylor Fellowship Award from the General Board of Higher Education and Ministry of the United Methodist Church provided funding for two visits to archival repositories at the final stages of this project．For the past two Decembers, I received UNCF-Mellon Book/Research Awards from the UNCFMellon Programs．These awards were used to purchase photographs and to defray duplicating costs.
An Orchard Invisible
Seeds have a mirrored life, the original in nature and another reflected in literature and the imagination. The Welsh proverb simultaneously expresses both the biological potential of seeds and their metaphorical power. The American philosopher and early conservationist Henry David Thoreau, who was fascinated by seeds and inspired by them, wrote, “I have great faith in a seed. Convince me that you have a seed there, and I am prepared to expect wonders.” Who cannot wonder that the largest organism on this planet, the giant redwood Sequoiadendron giganteum nicknamed “General Sherman,” which weighs roughly the equivalent of a fleet of six Boeing 747400 Jumbo Jets, germinated more than two thousand years ago from a seed weighing only a six-thousandth of a gram?
Looking Back at the Arkansas Gazette
The Arkansas Gazette was born in a log cabin November 20, 1819, on a bank of the Arkansas River. A local establishment donated a barrel of whiskey to celebrate the event. The first issue carried a complaint from a citizen that the town had too many lawyers. When the paper died 167 years later, the problem was not lawyers but corporate executives who had found themselves, to their confusion, in charge of the oldest newspaper west of the Mississippi and not knowing what to do with it.
Not Without Honor
Not Without Honor threads together the stories of three American POWs-Carano; his buddy Bill Blackmon, who was also at Stalag 17 b; and John C. Bitzer, who survived the brutal "e;Death March"e; from northern Germany to liberation in April 1945. At times the journal reads like a thriller as he records air battles and escape attempts. Yet in their most gripping accounts, these POWs ruminate on psychological survival. The sense of community they formed was instrumental to their endurance. This compelling book allows the reader to journey with these young men as they bore firsthand witness to the best and worst of human nature.
The Fate of Texas
The Civil War in the West has a single goal: to promote historical writing about the war in the western states and territories. It focuses most particularly on the Trans-Mississippi theater, which consisted of Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, most of Louisiana (west of the Mississippi River), Indian Territory (modern-day Oklahoma), and Arizona Territory (two-fifths of modern-day Arizona and New Mexico), but also encompasses adjacent states, such as Kansas, Tennessee, and Mississippi, that directly influenced the Trans-Mississippi war. It is a wide swath to be sure, but one too often ignored by historians and consequently too little understood and appreciated.
Cry for Justice
This book will build on the work of Davis and Lackner by exploring the nature of the “cry for justice”lifted by Rudd throughout the years of his newspaper's publication．My primary thesis is that from 1886 through the newspaper's collapse, circa 1897, Rudd promoted a church-centered vision of justice that presumed for the Catholic Church a vital role in the establishment of a racially equitable society in America．Appealing to the “Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of Man,”the editor of the American Catholic Tribune employed the theologically rich nomenclature of the day．These convictions regarding the fundamental unity of the human family found support both in the teachings of Jesus and the Christian Doctrine of Creation．Rudd argued the best hope for African Americans living in late nineteenth-century America was the Catholic Church．He believed that through its mission and ministry justice would indeed prevail in American society．Moreover, during this same period Rudd found sufficient evidence and encouragement from church leaders to believe that this divine institution would play a pivotal role in society's eventual recognition of the full equality of African Americans.
Perspectives on Food-Safety Issues of Animal-Derived Foods
As recent stories in the news have shown, maintaining the integrity of the food supply is of critical importance to the consumer. Thousands of Americans die each year from food-borne illnesses, and millions more get sick. Tremendous strides have been made to reduce the incidence of food-borne diseases originating from animal-derived foods, but food safety and food-borne pathogens continue to remain problematic throughout the world. Food-safety scientists from around the nation continue to conduct groundbreaking research not only to understand causative factors in food-borne pathogen prevalence but to develop novel intervention strategies for limiting contamination in all phases of food animal production. The twenty-four essays in this book highlight research efforts of researchers from the tristate Food Safety Consortium established in 1988 by Congress as a research alliance of food-safety scientists at the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University, and Kansas State University. Members of the consortium conduct research through an annual grant approved by Congress and administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its mission is to conduct extensive investigation into all areas of poultry, beef, and pork meat production, from the farm to the consumer's table. In addition to the consortium researchers, collaborative university researchers, government officials, and industry personnel provide timely reviews of their latest findings with regard to five significant subject areas: preharvest food-borne pathogen ecology and intervention strategies, postharvest food-borne pathogen ecology, rapid methods and detection strategies for food-borne pathogens, antibiotics and antimicrobials in food safety, and emerging issues in food safety. Progress in these research areas provides opportunities to further enhance protection of animal-derived foods from farm to fork.
Laws of Cool
Knowledge work is now the reigning business paradigm and affects even the world of higher education. But what perspective can the knowledge of the humanities and arts contribute to a world of knowledge work whose primary mission is businessAnd what is the role of information technology as both the servant of the knowledge economy and the medium of a new technological coolIn The Laws of Cool, Alan Liu reflects on these questions as he considers the emergence of new information technologies and their profound influence on the forms and practices of knowledge.
Catholic Social Imagination
The reach of the Catholic Church is arguably greater than that of any other religion, extending across diverse political, ethnic, class, and cultural boundaries. But what is it about Catholicism that resonates so profoundly with followers who live under disparate conditionsWhat is it, for instance, that binds parishioners in America with those in MexicoFor Joseph M. Palacios, what unites Catholics is a sense of being Catholic-a social imagination that motivates them to promote justice and build a better world.In The Catholic Social Imagination, Palacios gives readers a feeling for what it means to be Catholic and put one's faith into action. Tracing the practices of a group of parishioners in Oakland, California, and another in Guadalajara, Mexico, Palacios reveals parallels-and contrasts-in the ways these ordinary Catholics receive and act on a church doctrine that emphasizes social justice. Whether they are building a supermarket for the low-income elderly or waging protests to promote school reform, these parishioners provide important insights into the construction of the Catholic social imagination. Throughout, Palacios also offers important new cultural and sociological interpretations of Catholic doctrine on issues such as poverty, civil and human rights, political participation, and the natural law.
From the lumberyards and meatpacking factories of the Southwest Side to the industrial suburbs that arose near Lake Calumet at the turn of the twentieth century, manufacturing districts shaped Chicago's character and laid the groundwork for its transformation into a sprawling metropolis. Approaching Chicago's story as a reflection of America's industrial history between the Civil War and World War II, Chicago Made explores not only the well-documented workings of centrally located city factories but also the overlooked suburbanization of manufacturing and its profound effect on the metropolitan landscape. Robert Lewis documents how manufacturers, attracted to greenfield sites on the city's outskirts, began to build factory districts there with the help of an intricate network of railroad owners, real estate developers, financiers, and wholesalers. These immense networks of social ties, organizational memberships, and financial relationships were ultimately more consequential, Lewis demonstrates, than any individual achievement. Beyond simply giving Chicago businesses competitive advantages, they transformed the economic geography of the region. Tracing these transformations across seventy-five years, Chicago Made establishes a broad new foundation for our understanding of urban industrial America.
We'll Always Have Paris
For much of the twentieth century, Americans had a love/hate relationship with France. While many admired its beauty, culture, refinement, and famed joie de vivre, others thought of it as a dilapidated country populated by foul-smelling, mean-spirited anti-Americans driven by a keen desire to part tourists from their money. We'll Always Have Paris explores how both images came to flourish in the United States, often in the minds of the same people.Harvey Levenstein takes us back to the 1930s, when, despite the Great Depression, France continued to be the stomping ground of the social elite of the eastern seaboard. After World War II, wealthy and famous Americans returned to the country in droves, helping to revive its old image as a wellspring of sophisticated and sybaritic pleasures. At the same time, though, thanks in large part to Communist and Gaullist campaigns against U.S. power, a growing sensitivity to French anti-Americanism began to color tourists' experiences there, strengthening the negative images of the French that were already embedded in American culture. But as the century drew on, the traditional positive images were revived, as many Americans again developed an appreciation for France's cuisine, art, and urban and rustic charms.Levenstein, in his colorful, anecdotal style, digs into personal correspondence, journalism, and popular culture to shape a story of one nation's relationship to another, giving vivid play to Americans' changing response to such things as France's reputation for sexual freedom, haute cuisine, high fashion, and racial tolerance. He puts this tumultuous coupling of France and the United States in historical perspective, arguing that while some in Congress say we may no longer have french fries, others, like Humphrey Bogart in Casablanca, know they will always have Paris, and France, to enjoy and remember.
Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714-74), a woman artist and scientist, surmounted meager origins and limited formal education to become one of the most acclaimed anatomical sculptors of the Enlightenment. The Lady Anatomist tells the story of her arresting life and times, in light of the intertwined histories of science, gender, and art that complicated her rise to fame in the eighteenth century.Examining the details of Morandi's remarkable life, Rebecca Messbarger traces her intellectual trajectory from provincial artist to internationally renowned anatomical wax modeler for the University of Bologna's famous medical school. Placing Morandi's work within its cultural and historical context, as well as in line with the Italian tradition of anatomical studies and design, Messbarger uncovers the messages contained within Morandi's wax in*ions, part complex theories of the body and part poetry. Widely appealing to those with an interest in the tangled histories of art and the body, and including lavish, full-color reproductions of Morandi's work, The Lady Anatomist is a sophisticated biography of a true visionary.
Once maligned as a swampy outpost, the fledgling city of Chicago brazenly adopted the motto Urbs in Horto or City in a Garden, in 1837. Chicago Gardens shows how this upstart town earned its sobriquet over the next century, from the first vegetable plots at Fort Dearborn to innovative garden designs at the 1933 World's Fair. Cathy Jean Maloney has spent decades researching the city's horticultural heritage, and here she reveals the unusual history of Chicago's first gardens. Challenged by the region's clay soil, harsh winters, and fierce winds, Chicago's pioneering horticulturalists, Maloney demonstrates, found imaginative uses for hardy prairie plants. This same creative spirit thrived in the city's local fruit and vegetable markets, encouraging the growth of what would become the nation's produce hub. The vast plains that surrounded Chicago, meanwhile, inspired early landscape architects, such as Frederick Law Olmsted, Jens Jensen, and O.C. Simonds, to new heights of grandeur. Maloney does not forget the backyard gardeners: immigrants who cultivated treasured seeds and pioneers who planted native wildflowers. Maloney's vibrant depictions of Chicagoans like "Bouquet Mary," a flower peddler who built a greenhouse empire, add charming anecdotal evidence to her argument-that Chicago's garden history rivals that of New York or London and ensures its status as a world-class capital of horticultural innovation. With exquisite archival photographs, prints, and postcards, as well as field guide de*ions of living legacy gardens for today's visitors, Chicago Gardens will delight green-thumbs from all parts of the world.
Bargaining for Brooklyn
When middle-class residents fled American cities in the 1960s and 1970s, government services and investment capital left too. Countless urban neighborhoods thus entered phases of precipitous decline, prompting the creation of community-based organizations that sought to bring direly needed resources back to the inner city. Today there are tens of thousands of these CBOs-private nonprofit groups that work diligently within tight budgets to give assistance and opportunity to our most vulnerable citizens by providing services such as housing, child care, and legal aid.Through ethnographic fieldwork at eight CBOs in the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Williamsburg and Bushwick, Nicole P. Marwell discovered that the complex and contentious relationships these groups form with larger economic and political institutions outside the neighborhood have a huge and unexamined impact on the lives of the poor. Most studies of urban poverty focus on individuals or families, but Bargaining for Brooklyn widens the lens, examining the organizations whose actions and decisions collectively drive urban life.
Cube and the Face
Alberto Giacometti's 1934 Cube stands apart for many as atypical of the Swiss artist, the only abstract sculptural work in a wide oeuvre that otherwise had as its objective the exploration of reality. With The Cube and the Face, renowned French art historian and philosopher Georges Didi-Huberman has conducted a careful analysis of Cube, consulting the artist's sketches, etchings, texts, and other sculptural works in the years just before and after Cube was created. Cube, he finds, is indeed exceptional-a work without clear stylistic kinship to the works that came before or after it. At the same time, Didi-Huberman shows, Cube marks the transition between the artist's surrealist and realist phases and contains many elements of Giacometti's aesthetic consciousness, including his interest in dimensionality, the relation of the body to geometry, and the portrait-or what Didi-Huberman terms "abstract anthropomorphism." Drawing on Freud, Bataille, Leiris, and others Giacometti counted as influence, Didi-Huberman presents fans and collectors of Giacometti's art with a new approach to transitional work.
From Mother and Daughter
Among the best-known and most prolific French women writers of the sixteenth century, Madeleine (1520-87) and Catherine (1542-87) des Roches were celebrated not only for their uncommonly strong mother-daughter bond but also for their bold assertion of poetic authority for women in the realm of belles lettres. The Dames des Roches excelled in a variety of genres, including poetry, Latin and Italian translations, correspondence, prose dialogues, pastoral drama, and tragicomedy; collected in From Mother and Daughter are selections from their celebrated oeuvre, suffused with an engaging and enduring feminist consciousness. Madeleine and Catherine spent their entire lives in civil war-torn Poitiers, where a siege of the city, vandalism, and desecration of churches fueled their political and religious commentary. Members of an elite literary circle that would inspire salon culture during the next century, the Dames des Roches addressed the issues of the day, including the ravages of religious civil wars, the weak monarchy, education for women, marriage and the family, violence against women, and the status of women intellectuals. Through their collaborative engagement in shared public discourse, both mother and daughter were models of moral, political, and literary agency.
Goethe and the Ginkgo
In 1815, Goethe gave symbolic expression to his intense relationship with Marianne Willemer, a recently married woman thirty-five years his junior. He gave her a leaf from the ginkgo tree, explaining that, like its deeply cleft yet still whole leaf, he was "single yet twofold." Although it is not known if their relationship was ever consummated, they did exchange love poetry, and Goethe published several of Marianne's poems in his West-East Divan without crediting her authorship.In this beautiful little book, renowned Goethe scholar Siegfried Unseld considers what this episode means to our estimation of a writer many consider nearly godlike in stature. Unseld begins by exploring the botanical and medical lore of the ginkgo, including the use of its nut as an aphrodisiac and anti-aging serum. He then delves into Goethe's writings for the light they shed on his relationship with Marianne. Unseld reveals Goethe as a great yet human being, subject, as any other man, to the vagaries of passion.
In Jennifer Summit's account, libraries are more than inert storehouses of written tradition; they are volatile spaces that actively shape the meanings and uses of books, reading, and the past. Considering the two-hundred-year period between 1431, which saw the foundation of Duke Humfrey's famous library, and 1631, when the great antiquarian Sir Robert Cotton died, Memory's Library revises the history of the modern library by focusing on its origins in medieval and early modern England.Summit argues that the medieval sources that survive in English collections are the product of a Reformation and post-Reformation struggle to redefine the past by redefining the cultural place, function, and identity of libraries. By establishing the intellectual dynamism of English libraries during this crucial period of their development, Memory's Library demonstrates how much current discussions about the future of libraries can gain by reexamining their past.